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Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

 

Requirements for Appointment

The regulation pertaining to the management of public education institutions is contained in Act CXC of 2011 on National Public Education, while the employment of heads of institutions is regulated by Government Decree No 202/2012. As was prescribed by the former regulation, school heads must have tertiary qualifications at the level required in the institution they lead. An additional requirement laid down by the new regulation in respect of upper secondary schools is the Master degree and the qualification in institution management. The latter can be obtained at a teacher’s post-graduate specialist examination. The minimum requirement for professional experience is five years spent in a teaching position, in full-time employment.

As for the management of institutions receiving students belonging to a nationality and students with special education needs, the following additional rules apply:

  • Where the language of kindergarten education or school education is exclusively performed in a language of a nationality, or where more than half of the students are instructed in two languages – the language of a nationality and Hungarian –, those may be appointed as heads whose qualifications correspond to the given level of nationality education and teaching. (During selection, preference is given to the candidate belonging to the given nationality.)
  • Heads of institutions for children/students with special education needs must have relevant qualifications (qualification as a special needs teacher, conductor, conductor teacher or therapist).

There are rules pertaining to conflict of interests in connection with the appointment of heads. In public schools, managing executives of the maintainer or members of the local council/municipality cannot become school heads. In church and private institutions the members of the board exercising maintainer’s rights can also be appointed as the head of the institution.

The appointment of school heads is subject to a public tender in the public sector. The teaching staff have the right of delivering opinion on the tender submitted by candidates. The term of office of heads is for five years but can be extended several times. It is not required to submit a tender for the second term if the maintainer, or, in the case of non state institutions, the government office and the teaching staff agree with the appointment. In the case of disagreement, and for the third and following terms, it is necessary to announce a new call for tender and the former head has to submit a tender as well.

The heads of state-maintained schools are appointed by the minister responsible for education. As kindergartens are maintained by municipalities, the appointment of heads of kindergartens is decided by municipalities. The heads of church and private institutions are appointed by the maintainer exercising employer’s rights. In the case of church-maintained and private institutions, the operator may appoint heads even without issuing a call for tender.

Conditions of Service

The salary of heads consists of the relevant teachers’ salary, the management supplement, and other allowances. In the cease of heads of kindergartens, schools (director-generals, heads of member institutions and heads of institutional units in multipurpose institutions), and heads of dormitories employed in the public and local government sector the scheme applicable to civil servants apply, which is based on the wage matrix determined at state level; in the case of church and private education – since heads are not civil servants in this case – the Labour Code is applied by their employer within the framework of his own rules and possibilities. In the latter case a statutory provision sets forth that their salary cannot be lower than those allotted in the public sector. The regulation enables heads to receive other salary supplements as well, e.g. the financial recognition of further degrees and/or professional qualifications provided that these can be utilised in the institution.

The framework of the working time of school heads is set forth by the Labour Code, i.e. it is 40 hours a week. A traditional requirement of Hungarian education policy is that heads should not abandon practical education and teaching. Thus, in addition to discharging management duties, compulsory lessons stipulated by law must be delivered within the framework of full-time employment. The (weekly) number of compulsory lessons of heads depends on the school level and type, and the size of the institution (number of students). The difference may be quite significant (it may exceed 10 lessons). Heads of kindergartens must spend at least 6, and maximum 12 lessons with direct educational tasks, depending on the number of children. In basic and upper secondary schools, as well as basic and upper secondary institutions educating exclusively students with special education needs the weekly number of lessons of heads is between 2 and 8, while this number in dormitories is 4 to 10 lessons/week. Deputy heads usually undertake one and a half or twice as much direct teaching and educational duties as their heads. Apart from this obligation, heads are entitled to determine the use and schedule of their working time.

The recruitment base of heads of educational institutions consists of teachers and school heads themselves. Empirical research indicates that the age of school heads is increasing; the majority of school heads are re-elected. Change of school heads is particularly low in upper secondary schools. The fact that the heads of kindergartens and schools are from the adjacent geographic area is probably in connection with that regional mobility is rather low throughout the country.

The professional mobility of heads is mostly characterised by promotion within the profession. The first typical step of heads is obtaining the necessary degree or qualification or obtaining a higher level of qualification. The next popular step is the participation in postgraduate specialist courses which enable teachers to perform special and high-level educational and teaching tasks (e.g. expert, mentor). In addition, a significant path of mobility according to the current practice is the participation in school management courses, because this has been a statutory requirement since 2013. The path leading from the field of educational governance, pedagogical assistance service, and pedagogical professional service to school management is a two-way channel of professional mobility. Application for school head position is enabled by that the teacher’s professional experience required for the appointment as school head can be obtained in the field of educational governance, pedagogical assistance service or pedagogical professional service as well, while experience in school management is an asset when applying for a post in educational governance.

Continuous professional development of leaders often focuses on the development of learning, the renewal of the methodology, the integration of disadvantageous students and the improvement of the quality of teaching. Courses leading to a teacher’s post-graduate specialist examination are also of high priority. Another priority option of professional development for heads is the obtaining of the expert status, organised by the Educational Authority. The supply of in-service trainings is widely extended by courses financed by the European Union, i.e. the European Social Fund available for the development of the content and methodology of public education. The special feature of human resources development programmes supported by the European Social Fund between 2007 and 2013 was that projects involving the whole school, focusing on effectiveness, and harmonising material and human resources, as well as international-national and local needs were given priority.

The nationally unified rules of retirement apply to the retirement of heads. The age limit of old-age pension has been increasing since 2010 from 62 years of age to reach 65 years of age in 2022. Pension may be received after a service period of at least 20 years. Eligibility for 100% pension is subject to a service period of at least 40 years.

In the case of kindergarten and school heads working in the public-local government sector the civil servant status limits dismissal to some extent, but the high level protection provided earlier decreased as a result of the amendment of the relevant law. The most likely reason for dismissal is the commitment of a disciplinary offence. A disciplinary procedure may be launched due to the violation of a major obligation arising from the civil servant status. The withdrawal of the term of office of heads may also be the result of a disciplinary offence; in this case the former head may keep his status as a teacher in the institution. The operator may also discharge the head with providing actual and reasonable justification. The head may resign from his/her term of office as head in writing, which becomes valid upon the acceptance by the maintainer. The Act on Civil Servants does not apply to schools maintained by churches and foundations; here the Labour Code is applicable. In compliance with that, the regulation and practice relating to the dismissal of heads are determined by school maintainers. The new Labour Code, which entered into force in 2012, introduced new rules with a wider scope for the agreement between contracting parties, and which support flexible employment as well.