Hungary:Main Types of Provision

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary


All full time initial education programmes are also available for adults as part-time programmes:

  • basic education (single structure primary and lower secondary) programmes,
  • general upper secondary (gimnazium), vocational upper secondary (szakkozepiskola) and vocational school programmes,
  • higher education and vocational higher education programmes

There are a few vocational qualifications only obtainable in full time initial education but most of them are available both full time and part time. There are also a few which are only obtainable in part time, adult education.

In non-formal adult education most providers are companies and other for-profit organisations but in labour market training the role of state-maintained providers is also significant. Motivating informal learning and creating spaces and opportunities for informal learning has been a policy priority since the beginning of  2000 but adult learning, including informal learning in Hungary is much below the EU average. Participation in lifelong learning of the age-group 25-64 was 3.2% in 2014, which is the sixth lowest in Europe (compared to an EU average of 10.7%)

Provision to Raise Achievement in Basic Skills

Basic education programmes, general upper secondary programmes, foreign language and IT training courses, some training courses that are part of public works schemes as well as EU-co-funded skill development programmes in the SROP and HROP measures serve to raise achievement in basic skills.

Basic education for adults: state-maintained schools offer free of charge adult education for adults who did not complete basic education (ISCED 2, Lower secondary level). Usually the same schools also provide full-time education for children. The Ministry responsible for education is in charge of the programmes and the maintenance of the schools. The provision has a long tradition but supply is limited to cities and large towns because demand is low - 99% of students complete basic education until the compulsory schooling age (age 16). Provision mainly covers the last two grades (grade 7 and 8) because it is very rare that someone does not complete the lower grades. Some schools organises teaching in a way that the two grades may be completed in one year. The certificate issued upon completion is equal to the one obtained in full time initial education - it entitles students to access upper secondary education and to undertake a driving course and obtain a driving licence, which is a motivation for many participants.

General upper secondary education for adults: those unable to complete upper secondary education in full time education, may enrol to part-time adult provision available to participants over the compulsory schooling age. It has had a long tradition and has always been popular, since is a prerequisite to entering higher education and obtaining some vocational qualification - and improves employability in itself. It is free of charge unless someone enrols to the same grade for the third time. (Some schools charge a small enrolment fee of around 30 Euros.) The school leaving certificate is equivalent to the one obtained in full time, initial education. Most schools are state-maintained and also provide full time, initial education. The programme lasts four years but at some schools it may be completed within two years and recognition of prior learning is possible. It is also possible to obtain a secondary school leaving certificate at a vocational upper secondary school but it is less popular.

Public works schemes (increasing in volume, 213 thousand participant per month on average planned for 2015) may include an obligatory training element to improve the future employability of participants. The training may consist of basic competence development or a short vocational training course and is co-funded by the EU.

The EU co-funded Social Renewal Operational Programme (SROP, 2007-2013) included several measures aiming at developing the general skills and key competences of various target groups. 

  • SROP 2.1.2 intended to improve the foreign language and IT skills of the adult population in order to enhance their economic competitiveness and employability. Anyone over 18 without a pupil or student status was eligible and about 78,000 of the 120,000 participants were disadvantaged persons. The programme was coordinated by Ministries but the training courses were mainly implemented by for-profit training providers. Participants received a grant of about 300 Euros, sufficient for a 50-100 hour training course. They had to contribute towards training costs (min. 5%, or min. 2% in case of disadvantaged participants).
  • Several measures of the SROP (e.g. SROP 1.1.2 and 1.1.4) supported the labour market entry of low-qualified (max. ISCED 2) persons. The projects, implemented by the Public Employment Service, often involved the development of key competences

Provision to Achieve a Recognised Qualification during Adulthood

State recognised vocational qualifications listed on the National Qualifications Register may be achieved in adulthood at schools (in school-based education), in training courses (non-school-based education) and in special programmes.

In school-based education, vocational qualifications may be obtained at vocational schools (szakiskola) or vocational secondary schools (szakkozepiskola). Vocational schools offer ISCED 3 level vocational qualifications, while vocational secondary schools offer ISCED 3 and ISCED 4 level programmes. Obtaining the first vocational qualification is free of charge for everyone and in adult education even obtaining the second vocational qualification has been free of charge since May 2015. Programmes are one or two years long. Entry requirements as well as curricular and exam requirements are identical to those in initial VET and vocational qualifications are also equivalent to those obtained in initial VET.

Adults, as opposed to young people below the compulsory schooling age (16), are able to obtain a state recognised vocational qualification outside the school system at courses offered by training providers - in fact the majority of them obtains a qualification in this way. In 2013, nearly 140 thousand adults obtained state recognised ISCED 2-4 level vocational qualifications in non-school-based education, while only 9400 did so in school-based education (at ISCED 3-4). ISCED 2 level vocational qualifications are only available for pupils with special education needs in full time education in special vocational schools or for adults in non-school based education but it is not available for adults within the school system. The length of courses offered outside the school system vary considerably: from 1-2 months (ISCED 2) to 2 years. The National Qualifications Register specifies the minimum number of hours required for each vocational qualification. According to this, the shortest course consists of 150 hours and lasts for a minimum of one month (an ISCED 2 level course), while the longest (an ISCED 4 level course) consists of at least 3600 hours and lasts for at least 2 years. In terms of funding, ISCED 2 level courses are funded by the National Employment Fund and by EU programmes, while ISCED 3 or 4 level courses are also often financed by participants or employers.

To a lesser extent, it is also possible to obtain a state recognised qualification in adulthood in special programmes such as the transit employment programme supporting the labour market integration of the long-term unemployed. It consists of three elements: vocational (nearly always ISCED 3 level) training, supported employment and psycho-social support. The projects typically last 15-18 months and are implemented by NGOs from EU funding. Participants are long-term unemployed persons aged over 18.

Provision Targeting the Transition to the Labour Market

Labour market training has been a significant element of active labour market policies for more than two decades. This publicly funded training is basically available for the unemployed but it is also offered for those at risk of losing their jobs, participating in the secondary labour market (e.g. in the public works scheme), caring for children or relatives at home or having reduced ability to work. It is co-funded by the EU, coordinated by the Public Employment Service and implemented by training providers selected through a tendering procedure. Training for participants of public works schemes are provided exclusively by Turr Istvan Training and Research Institute, an agency of the Ministry responsible for education. The training is implemented in the SROP 2.1.6 measure and is co-funded by the EU.

A large proportion of the training courses end in vocational qualifications but there are also key competence development, foreign language exam preparation, career orientation courses and courses for a driving licence. The majority of training courses are ones that meet the needs of the local labour market (based on county-level lists) but training courses not included in the county-level lists may also be supported on request of the job seeker. The average length of training is one month (100-150 hours) for participants of the public works scheme and 4.6 months for others.

Participants may receive a grant and cost reimbursement. Unemployed participants always receive a grant (wage-substitute) if they participate in training at least 20 hours a week. Training is free of charge for them if it is on the county-level list of courses meeting labour market needs. If the training course is not included in the list, participants or their future employers contribute to the training costs.

Provision of Liberal (Popular) Adult Education

The aim of this kind of learning is not related to career progression but to leisure and hobbies (sports, music, crafts etc.). Participation rates vary according to school attainment. 

The strategic document of this field is the Lifelong Learning Strategy, first adopted in 2004 and the second (current) strategy, effective for 2014-2020, adopted in 2014. It devotes a chapter to the topic, titled "Reinforcing the role of cultural institutions in adult learning".

In the 2007-2013 planning period the cultural sector was developed in Priority 3 of the SROP (Providing Quality Education and Access to All). There were library development, museum development and museum pedagogy development projects as well as programmes aiming at the human resource development.

Other Types of Publicly Subsidised Provision for Adult Learners

No other types of provision