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Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

Main goals of the Hungarian Lifelong Learning Strategy

For the period 2014-2020, the European Union required the development of a national policy framework strategy for the policy of lifelong learning as a precondition of utilizing the structural funds. (Government Decree 1603/2014 (XI.4.) on adopting the Hungarian National Social Inclusion Strategy II, the Framework Strategy of the policy of lifelong learning, the Strategy of the Development of Public Education, and the Mid-term Strategy against Leaving School without Qualification. Hungarian Official Gazette, 2014, Issue 150).

Lifelong learning covers the whole lifecycle of a person from early socialisation and pre-school education until the period following the active age in terms of work. Lifelong learning focuses on the learning process and the individual needs and skills of the student. The comprehensive objectives of the framework strategy of lifelong learning aim to enhance the adaptation of the system of education and training to the principles of lifelong learning, the extension of the opportunities of learning outside the formal learning environments, lifelong development of skills and capacities, as well as the development, use and promotion of the tools enhancing the building of the system of lifelong learning.

The framework strategy of lifelong learning sets comprehensive orientation directions on the one hand for the educational and training subsectors affected directly by learning and for the policy areas affected indirectly, and on the other hand, it intends to provide a strategic framework for the development of human resources.

 

For the framework strategy, the principles defining the policy frameworks of lifelong learning reflect the approach that when thinking about the development of educational, training and learning activities, the grip of the sectoral approach shall be loosened, and the government replies to the comprehensive social, economic problems shall be given priority. The definition of lifelong learning used in the framework strategy applies the approach and definition prevailing in the European Union. When designating the subject of the framework strategy and the area of strategic intervention, the designers of the strategy took into account the aspects of the principles of lifelong learning, i.e. irrespectively of the subsystems and sectoral areas, the strategy deals with issues closely related to the following areas:

  • lifelong learning,
  • increasing adaptation to the individual needs of the student,
  • awakening learning motivation, providing a second chance,
  • developing skills and capacities in accordance with the needs and age characteristics,
  • enhancing the balance of learning possibilities and learning needs,
  • spreading a new learning and innovative pedagogical culture.

The strategy has three comprehensive objectives: (1) increasing the participation in lifelong learning, improving accessibility, (2) consolidating the principles of lifelong learning in the educational and training system in adult learning, and (3) visibility and recognition of the value and outcomes of learning. Determining the area of comprehensive objectives has two underlying principles. On the one hand, this division ensures that the first comprehensive objective covers the area of non-formal and informal learning, the second objective covers formal learning, the educational and training subsystems, while the third objective deals with the horizontal issues of the learning activity. On the other hand, this division reflects the classification known from international research, related to the obstacles of learning, classifying the learning obstacles into the following three groups:

  1. Situational obstacles related to life circumstances: obstacles related to learning opportunities, availability, including the improper training-learning offer, the financing, temporal, physical obstacles, etc.
  2. Institutional obstacles: procedures and practices existing in the institutional world of  formal learning and in pedagogical culture which may lead to the creation of contradicting dispositions related to future learning, and may form obstacles.
  3. Obstacles related to attitude: earlier negative learning experiences, lack of self-confidence, the feeling of incompetence, lack of the knowledge and transparency of the positive advantages of learning, etc.

Accordingly, the first comprehensive objective aims to increase the learning activity through balancing the learning obstacles deriving from the situational and life circumstances of the target groups in need. The second comprehensive objective intends to change the institutional hindering factors playing vital roles in the future participation in learning and in the dispositions related to learning, while the third comprehensive objective focuses on the areas related to attitudes, incentives, information concerning learning.

Increasing participation in lifelong learning and improving access

The first comprehensive objective mainly covers the increase of participation in compensational learning activities outside the system of formal learning and the improvement of access to learning occasions. The specific objectives basically match the social inclusion and labour market integration objectives, that are also reflected in the areas of intervention. The target groups of the specific objectives are those disadvantaged groups in terms of social or labour market aspects which shall be provided with differentiated educational-learning support and for which the learning opportunities shall be extended. Such groups do not get sufficient motivation for learning, suffer from learning difficulties or earlier academic failure, have a low educational level or no qualification. Their absence from learning is caused by the lack of basic competences required for lifelong learning, the lack of solvent demand for learning services, as well as by the insufficiency of supply targeting the social groups requiring the most support.

The first comprehensive objective targets four specific areas:

  • The first aims to improve the life chances of disadvantaged persons and Roma through increasing their learning chances, improving their access to learning opportunities, and increasing their participation in learning. The programmes targeting the consolidation of basic competences and the attainment of basic skills appear in complex regional, inclusion and social programmes.
  • The second specific objective aims to improve the employability of people who are in disadvantaged situation in terms of labour market opportunities – including Roma and disadvantaged workers –, as well as their labour market integration by education, training and learning.
  • The third specific objective aims to improve the chances of school leavers without qualification, school drop-outs and of young people who are not present either in education or on the labour market. The return of young people and adults with low levels of education – maximum primary school - to the world of education and training, or their transition to the labour market shall be supported by developing motivating programmes – completion of the school or equivalent development of basic skills -, and by providing alternative learning opportunities offering a “second chance” for the attainment of professional qualification.
  • The fourth specific objective is the development and support of non-formal and informal learning opportunities and e-learning, as well as workplace learning and trainings.

 

Consolidating the principles of lifelong learning in the system of education and training and in adult learning

The second comprehensive objective aims to consolidate the principles of lifelong learning in the system of education and training. Among the obstacles of learning later on in life, the problem of access is only one of the bottlenecks, and the other similarly significant is the lack of motivation and skills, and therefore, it is very important how the education and training establishing the foundations of lifelong learning prepare the students and pupils for learning in later stages of life.

The second comprehensive objective contains five specific target areas:

  • The first one aims at founding lifelong learning in early childhood and at school, at consolidating the training of basic skills and key competences, as well as at strengthening public education’s role in compensating disadvantages.
  • The second one includes the preparation, continued professional development of teachers, instructors and trainers, as well as the increasing of their self-development capacities.
  • The third one aims to consolidate the relationship between vocational training and economy, the world of work, to develop practical training, and to increase the effectiveness of vocational education and training.
  • The fourth one targets the supporting of the diversification and differentiation of higher education, the enhancement of the attractiveness of higher education among 25-55-year old people, and the transformation of higher education according to the needs of the economy.
  • The fifth one addresses the improvement of the effectiveness of adult training and the development of a support system of targeted adult training. The quality and effectiveness of adult training shall be developed in order to provide higher level, wider scale and more differentiated adult training services to the disadvantaged social groups by applying target group-tailored, competence centred programmes, curricula, teaching aids and methods built on professional requirements.

 

The visibility and recognition of the value and outcomes of learning

The people who would most need it are the ones who are left out of the learning activities following school education and training. They often do not perceive the advantages of learning, they are not informed sufficiently about their learning opportunities, they cannot see the correlations between the outcomes of the learning activity and their social-economic benefits. The incentives of learning, the cost-sharing facilities motivating the individual’s learning activity are missing. The success of increasing participation in lifelong learning is also based on the individual’s motivation, the widening of the learning opportunities, as well as on the expansion of the aids of non-formal and informal learning.

Therefore, the third comprehensive objective aims at developing the incentive and supportive aids and services of learning.

The third comprehensive objective covers four specific target areas:

  • the expansion of the system of learning incentives,
  • the development of the quality and quality assurance, quality management of learning,
  • the enhancement of the transparency, interdependency and structuring of learning paths, and the recognition of the previously attained knowledge and skills,
  • career building and the development of career follow-up.

 

Implementation of the framework strategy

The framework strategy does not result in direct regulative steps, however, it is important that the legislative and structural measures of the sectoral policies would be in harmony with the principles and development objectives formulated in relation to the intervention areas of the strategy. The implementation of the framework strategy is principally performed through the measures of the Economic Development and Innovation Operational Programme and the Human Resources Operational Programme financed from the European Social Fund for the period 2014- 2020 Therefore, strong consistency is required between the implementation of the interventions of the framework strategy and the operational programmes in order to include the recommendations formulated in the framework strategy as integral parts of the development policy operational programmes of the period 2014-2020.

The lifelong learning measures related to the areas of social inclusion, public education, higher education and culture, community culture belong to the competence of the Ministry of Human Resources, while the lifelong learning measures related to employment, enterprises, infocommunication sector and vocational education, adult training are subject to the competence of the Ministry for National Economy.