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Hungary:Introduction

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

Overall national education strategy and key objectives

In November 2014, the Government adopted the following strategies:

A Higher Education Strategy has also been developed, has undergone consultation with stakeholders and is planned to be approved by the Government in the near future.

Hungary first adopted the National Social Inclusion Strategy in December 2011. The implementation of the strategy is based on three-year action plans. The action plan for 2012-2014 included measures in the fields of child welfare, education, employment, healthcare, housing, stakeholder involvement and anti-discrimination. Monitoring reports about its implementation were prepared in 2012 and 2013. The Strategy has now been updated relying on the results of implementation: its structure, objectives, intervention areas and the main features of its priorities have not changed; its priorities have been slightly modified.

The new Lifelong Learning Strategy for the period of 2014-2020 contains the following general objectives:

  • to increase participation in and improve access to lifelong learning
  • to reinforce the principles of lifelong learning in the education and training systems as well as in adult learning
  • to ensure the visibility and acknowledgement of the value and results of learning

The School Education Strategy has been developed for the period of 2014-2020, with fields of intervention such as inclusive education, the teaching of heterogeneous groups of pupils, reducing the rate of early school leavers and supporting the school success of vulnerable groups.

The Strategy for Preventing Early School Leaving is a comprehensive strategy based on cross-sectoral cooperation and integrated interventions on the level of the individual, the institutions and the system. The Strategy will mainly be implemented through the measures of the Human Resources Operational Programme and the Economic Innovation Operational Programme. It includes preventive measures (e.g. high quality ECEC, flexible educational pathways, quality VET, initial education and continuous professional development of teachers), intervention measures (e.g. early warning system, mentoring of pupils at risk, focus on disadvantaged locations etc.) and compensation measures (e.g. “second chance” programmes, Youth Guarantee programmes etc.).

Overview of the education reform process and drivers

The education reform process is initiated by the Hungarian government, who formulates draft legislation to be presented to the Hungarian Parliament. The Parliament adopts regulations (acts – e.g. the Act on School Education, the Act on Higher Education). Strategies (e.g. Lifelong Learning Strategy) as well as curricular documents such as the National Core Programme for Pre-School Education and the National Core Curriculum (primary to upper secondary education) are issued as government regulations (decrees or resolutions), adopted by the government.

The Minister responsible for education (the Minister for Human Resources) is in charge of:

  • evaluating the implementation of the National Core Pre-School Programme and the National Core Curriculum (relying on a council established by him) every five years and propose amendment if necessary
  • developing a strategy for school education,
  • establishing, developing and modernising the system of national examinations
  • assessing pedagogical problems emerging in school education and developing solutions and procedures for them,
  • providing support for the development of county-level and metropolitan school education development plans,
  • developing and issuing educational programmes.

The various Agencies affiliated to ministries (e.g. Hungarian Institute of Educational Research and Development) also participate in the development of strategic documents.

The main consultative bodies are:

  • the National School Education Council (Országos Köznevelési Tanács), a consultative, reviewer and proposer body of the Minister responsible for education. It monitors the state of school education, prepares proposals and expresses its opinion on issues of educational policy and research and development related to school education. It also gives an opinion on the draft National Core Curriculum, framework curricula as well as their implementation. Its members are proposed by professional bodies and are appointed by the Minister.
  • the Council of National Minorities (Országos Nemzetiségi Tanács), a consultative, reviewer and proposer body of the Minister responsible for education. It has to be consulted before the adoption of textbooks in national minority education. Its members are delegated by national governments of national minorities.