This page was last modified on 15 December 2016, at 15:37.

Hungary:Historical Development

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

In 1989-90 Hungary experienced a peaceful political and social changeover as part of the landslide transformation marked by the collapse of the Soviet empire and the fall of communism. As a result of the agreement reached between the democratic opposition (formed by intellectual groups and movements) and the weakened communist power, the Constitution of 1949 was modified (Act XX of 1949 on the Constitution of the Republic of Hungary), and the Hungarian Republic was proclaimed on 23 October 1989.

Since the promulgation of the Amendment of the Constitution on 23 October 1989 Hungary has been a parliamentary democracy. Hungary is a republic and an independent and democratic constitutional state.

Democratic conditions are characterised by parliamentary alternation. As a result of the first free elections in 1990, a coalition government was formed by centre right and conservative political parties (MDF-Hungarian Democratic Forum, FKGP-Smallholders’ Party and KDNP-Christian Democrats).The government launched an overall privatisation process in the industrial, agricultural and service sector, and also started to make political and economic restitution. The government submitted its membership application to the European Union.

In the 1994 spring elections, the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) won an absolute majority and entered into a coalition with the liberal party, the Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ). The government continued the privatisation process and implemented a comprehensive economic stabilization programme. After the 1998 elections Fidesz – the Hungarian Civic Party (FIDESZ-MPP) formed a coalition with the Smallholders (FKGP) and the new government was set up with the participation of the two parties. The general elections held in 2002 and in 2006 were won by the Hungarian Socialist Party. It entered into a coalition with the Alliance of Free Democrats. In the election for local governments in the autumn of 2006 the FIDESZ-MPP triumphed. In the 2010 spring elections, the alliance of FIDESZ and KDNP won a two-third majority in the Parliament. In 2014 the FIDESZ-KDNP alliance obtained the 66,83 per cent of seats in the Parliament.

Political stability that characterised the period after the political changeover, along with the overall reforms implemented in ownership conditions, the banking system, public administration and the education system as well as the legal and financial reforms in the regulation of the industrial, agricultural and service sector, made Hungary a reliable partner for both investors and international diplomatic partners. While the significant influx of foreign operating capital played a decisive role in economic growth and integration into international economy, local SMEs had an increasing share in employment. As a result of efforts for Euro-Atlantic integration, Hungary became a member of the Council of Europe in 1990, of the OECD in 1996 of NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. Through accession a new political and economic era started, which provided a beneficial environment for economic and social development and integration into Europe.

On several occasions, Hungary played an active role in the establishment and consolidation of new international relations of the era following the break-up of the Soviet Union as well as in international crisis management and peace-keeping (in Kosovo, Iraq, Afghanistan etc.). In 1994 Hungary hosted the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, and chaired the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe.

In the first half of 2011, Hungary held the rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union. Major events marking this period included the North-African unrest, the Greek debt crisis as well as the tasks of stabilising the Euro and the economy of the EU. The adoption of a European Roma policy and the Danube Region Strategy as well as removing obstacles to closing the accession negotiations with Croatia demonstrated the efficacy of the Hungarian presidency. At the same time, some sensitive domestic issues such as the new media law, the new Constitution titled the Fundamental Law, changes in the regulations on the Constitutional Court, the special tax on banks and changes in the regulations on private pension schemes during the Presidency period were not received well by Europe.

Since the Millennium, the national social, political and economic processes – along with the growth of the GDP that has always exceeded the EU average – have been characterised, on the one hand, by a gradual decline in the macroeconomic balance, the relative weakening of the country’s international market position, an income outflow exceeding the economic performance, on the other hand in connection with these processes, by an increasing demand for a comprehensive reform of public administration and the social redistribution systems. In preceding period the state overrun in expenditure not only hindered the country’s close-up to Europe but resulted in a seriously imbalanced budget, the restitution of which called for urgent and radical austerity measures. The Hungarian Convergence programmes aimed at cutting back state expenditure, increasing revenues and comprehensively reforming state administration and the large social redistribution systems (health care, education, social services). Expectations about fulfilling the Maastricht criteria, preparing for the introduction of the Euro and ensuring sustainable growth have been reflected in the social and economic programme of the National Strategic Reference Framework 2007-2013.

However, it was obvious from professional and public opinions that the majority could or wished to follow slowly or not at all the quick sequence of reforms, and wanted more stability.

At a so-called “social referendum” initiated by the leading opposition party in March 2008, the majority of voters rejected the planned reforms of the government relating to higher education and health care, which would necessarily have resulted in an increased burden on the population. As a result of the referendum, the reforms were removed from the agenda, and the government, burdened by the necessity of austerity measures, was not able to increase its popularity.

On 18 April 2011, the Parliament adopted the Fundamental Law of Hungary, replacing the earlier Constitution. It was later amended several times. It determines the major segments of the social, political and economic arrangements of the country.