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Hungary:Higher Education

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

Hungary’ Fundamental law (functioning as the constitution) ensures the freedom of scientific research and artistic creation, the freedom of learning for the acquisition of the highest possible level of knowledge and the freedom of teaching. The State has no right to decide on questions of scientific truth; only scientists have the right to evaluate scientific research. Higher education institutions are autonomous in terms of the content and the methods of research and teaching; their organisation is regulated by an act.

Pursuant to the justification of the Higher Education Act (submitted to the Parliament before adoption), the Hungarian higher education aims, while serving the public good, to transmit competitive knowledge, to ensure the nation’s intellectual and economic development, to provide transparent and competitive theoretical and practical education, to perform basic and applied scientific research and pursue innovation, as well as to educate the new generation of teachers and researchers. The Hungarian higher education institutions promote the high standard of higher education taught in Hungarian language in the Carpathian Basin and worldwide and preserve the higher education activities connected with Hungary, the Hungarian language and culture.

The higher education institutions are autonomous institutions; their autonomy mainly covering educational and academic activities and research. Their organisational order and operation can be adjusted within the regulatory framework and their management should comply with the Act on Public Finance and the Act on State Property.

Pursuant to the Higher Education Act, the core activities of higher education institutions include education, academic research, and artistic creation. The educational core activity of the higher education institution extends to include the higher education vocational training, the Bachelor programme, the Master programme, the doctoral programme and the post-graduate specialist training. These core activities are undertaken exclusively by higher education institutions. The higher education institution is responsible for identifying and recognising students with outstanding skills and abilities capable of outperforming syllabus requirements, as well as disadvantaged and multiply disadvantaged students, and is liable to facilitate their professional, academic, artistic and sporting activities.

Universities, universities of applied sciences or colleges (non-university higher education institutions) qualify as higher education institutions in Hungary. Universities are higher education institutions authorised to provide at least eight Bachelor and six Master programmes and offer doctoral programmes and award doctoral degree, provided that at least sixty percent of their teaching and research staff employed directly or on a public service employment basis have a doctoral degree, operates students' academic workshops and is able to provide studies in foreign languages in some of its programmes. Universities are authorised to offer programmes in every educational cycle.

University of applied sciences is a tertiary institutions with at least four Bachelors programmes and two Masters programmes, and at least two dual trainings (if its accreditation includes engineering, IT, agriculture, nature science or business studies), having at least 45% of their teaching and research staff employed directly or on a public service employment basis have a doctoral degree, operates an academic student workshop, and is capable of offering foreign language courses at some of its departments.

Colleges are tertiary institutions having at least one-third of their teaching and research staff employed directly or on a public service employment basis have a doctoral degree. Colleges are entitled to operate an academic student workshop.

Universities, universities of applied sciences and colleges are also authorised to provide training that do not result in a higher education degree (higher education vocational training, post-graduate specialist training).

Higher education institutions may be established in Hungary individually or with another right holder by the state, a nationality government, a church with legal entity, a commercial entity with a seat in Hungary, and by any foundation, public foundation registered in Hungary an organisation carrying out religious activity, and in certain cases defined by law, a board of a private tertiary institution financed by an international organisation that exercises the rights of founders and maintainers of the institution. The individual exercising founder’s rights should undertake tasks in connection with the operation of the higher education institution. The higher education institution is established based on a state recognition of the parliament.  State recognised institutions are listed in Annex I. of the Higher Education Act. The Hungarian Rectors’ Conference is entitled by law to represent higher education institutions and to protect their interests.

The government and the minister responsible for higher education play a key role in the governance of higher education; they fulfil tasks relating to organisation, development and legality control and, in the case of state higher education institutions, exercise operator’s rights. Operator control should not affect the autonomy of the higher education institution granted in the matters of the scientific subject and contents of education and research.

The Educational Authority is an administrative body established by the government, acting as a higher education registration centre: it registers higher education institutions as well as the start or modification of their activities. It also carries out official inspections and keeps an official register on institutions. Furthermore, it operates the higher education information system (a central system based on data provided by HEIs.)

The Hungarian Accreditation Committee is a national expert body promoting the supervision, assurance, and evaluation of the quality of higher education, scientific research, and the scientific quality of artistic creation, which participates in procedures relating to higher education institutions, with special regard to doctorate schools. The National Doctoral Council is a body consisting of the chairs of the doctoral councils of higher education institutions, adopting positions in affairs relating to doctoral programmes and the conferral of doctoral degrees.

The Higher Education Planning Board promotes the link between tertiary education and the labour market. The Dual Training Council ensures quality assurance and assessment of the work-based learning component of dual training. The Council of National Scientific Students’ Academic workshops is responsible for the national representation and coordination of students’ academic and artistic activities pursued in higher education institutions and the national representation and coordination of the students’ academic workshops movement, as well as the organisation of nationwide scientific and artistic forums for students. The national representation of students is performed by the National Conference of Students in Hungary, while the national representation of students pursuing doctoral studies is performed by the Association of Hungarian PhD. and DLA Students.

The three-cycle degree structure, in accordance with the Bologna Declaration (signed in 1999), was introduced in September 2006.

The multi cycle system offers education at Bachelor (BA/BSc) level that lasts 6-8 semesters, which can be followed by Master (MA/MSc) level  courses of a maximum of 4 semesters (except for teachers’ training). The third cycle provides PhD programmes. Besides multi cycle courses, there are a few study fields where education remained undivided long cycle. Prerequisite for participating in a doctorate programme is a university, or Master degree.

There are also post-graduate specialist trainings for graduates holding a Bachelor or Master degree, launched by higher education institutions, which do not lead to another degree.

In addition, there are (short-cycle) higher education vocational trainings of 4 to 5 terms provided by higher education institutions, which are conditional on the secondary school leaving examination and result in an advanced vocational qualification. Part of the ECTS credits obtained during this training must be recognised in relevant Bachelor programmes, as provided for in law.

Higher education is governed by a sectoral act and a related government decrees regulating its implementation. These stipulate the most important provisions and rules applicable to the operation of higher education. Several other relevant government decrees and ministerial decrees stipulate partial regulations. Furthermore, various acts on the system of public finances and its sub-systems also apply to the operation of higher education institutions depending on their status and whether or not they rely on public funding.

The law does not stipulate the structure of the academic year. It only provides a definition for the academic year as a 10-month period, consisting of term time and (an) exam period(s). The law also defines the semester, which is a 5-month period. Consequently, higher education institutions are free to structure the academic year as they wish. However, since the law specifies all time-related provisions (e.g. the length of eligibility for state-funded places) in semesters, it is impossible to structure the year other than in semesters or quadmesters/quarters because it would create difficulties in interpreting or complying with the law as well as the usage of finances. Therefore, most institutions have semesters consisting of a term-time of 14-15 weeks and an exam period of 4-6 weeks. The autumn term usually starts at the beginning of September and ends at the end of January. The spring term usually starts at the beginning of February and lasts until the end of June. Pursuant to the law, in full-time studies, each semester consists of at least 200 classes and full-time education has to be offered on working days, five days a week.