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Overview Hungary


Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes


Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective





Alapfeladat/"basic task" means the public education duty laid down in the deed of foundation of the public education institution which may be: a) kindergarten education, b) kindergarten education of those belonging to a nationality, c) basic school education, d) basic school education of those belonging to a nationality, e) hall of residence education, f) hall of residence education for nationalities, g) grammar school education, h) vocational secondary school education, i) vocational education, j) grammar school education of nationalities, k) vocational secondary school education of nationalities, l) vocational education of nationalities, m) education within the framework of the Köznevelési Hídprogram (Public Education Bridge Programme), n) adult education, o) basic art education, p) developmental education / developmental teaching, q) pedagogical assistance service duties, r) kindergarten and school education of children / students with special education needs who may be educated together with the other children / students, s) kindergarten, school education of and hall of residence education for children / students with special education needs who cannot be educated together with other children / students, t) education required for children under permanent medical treatment in health resorts for children, healthcare institutions and rehabilitation institutions to fulfil their compulsory school attendance, u) pedagogical professional service.

Alaptanterv/ Core curriculum (CC) According to NCC, CC means a type of curriculum, which determines the compulsory uniform goals of education taking place in the framework of general education for one particular school system, to be applied throughout the whole education period in all schools with regard to all students. The National Core Curriculum interprets the key competences adopted by the European Union in the context of Hungarian public education, establishes the relationship of the general educational views of schools and other closely related institutions (kindergartens, dormitories, vocational training institutions, public cultural institutions, etc.) and lays the groundwork for the quality management work associated with the core curriculum. It focuses especially on the development tasks and general competences that form the basis of education work and are to be implemented in each specific phase of education. It defines the main areas of education – the so-called fields of general knowledge– and development areas (which are cross-cutting in that they span fields of general knowledge) and educational goals. It serves as a guideline for authors of framework curricula and educational programmes, textbook authors and editors, authors of auxiliary educational material and tools, experts who work out the requirements of state examinations and the tools of national measurement and assessment, and, above all, teachers. It coordinates central and local curriculum policies and the activities of the actors involved in schools (students, teachers, parents and maintainers).

Általános Iskola/Basic School or single structure school Basic education is conducted in the basic schools in eight grades (ISCED 1 and 2) according to nationally uniform requirements. Basic schools shall prepare the students for the continuation of studies in the upper secondary school in line with their interest, capabilities and talent.

Általános képzés/General education According to NCC general education is the teaching of fundamental general knowledge in school, and the optimal development of the associated competences. Its organizational framework is supplied by the period of schooling that focuses on teaching general knowledge. The knowledge and skills acquired in the course of general education enables students to solve specific tasks and problems, laying the groundwork for specialized trainings at various levels. Here, fundamental general knowledge means a system of interrelated elements: learning abilities, basic cultural techniques, key competences and socially accepted general knowledge.

Általános műveltség/ General knowledge According to NCC a system of basic knowledge regarding man, human groups and communities, the systems of relationships that characterize human society, science, technology, the world of the economy and labour, the natural and built environment, arts, communication, behaviour, culture itself, its acquisition (learning), further development and application. This basic knowledge manifests itself in one's values, motivations, knowledge (cognitive structures) and activities. General knowledge covers and combines into one harmonious whole all the major areas of human culture, and it supplies the common base knowledge everyone needs for their general education and vocational education as well as for any organized or self-taught learning after the end of schooling. The system and level of expected general knowledge varies by time periods and cultures. Today in Hungary, the backbone of general knowledge is made up of elements of Hungarian, European and global universal knowledge built onto each other. Its main characteristic is the harmony of traditions, interest in the issues of the present and attention towards the future, openness to the changes affecting the structure of culture, and relevance in all areas of social life. In the context of public education, general knowledge means a system of key competences and knowledge that is generally expected from educated people (people who completed secondary education).

Attitűd/Attitude According to NCC an individual's lasting approach towards or assessment of an object, person or abstract concept. It is made up of emotional (affective), intellectual (cognitive) and action-related (conative/behavioural) components. These express a positive or negative relationship with the object (or person or abstract concept) and consist of the individual's knowledge of it and behaviour towards it. All this has an effect on absorbing information from the environment and on interpreting goals – and allows the individual to react to specific situations quickly and reliably. Attitudes are learned, and they are relatively permanent and difficult to change.

Bölcsőde is part of the child welfare system and is under the auspices of the social affairs of the Ministry of Human Capacities. The bölcsőde is responsible for the care of children under 3. The child may stay one year longer depending on  his or her physical and emotional maturity.

Diákkör/ The Student Circle Students of a school / hall of residence may establish student circles to organise their joint activities in connection with education, to educate for democracy and public responsibility, in line with the school regulations; the establishment and operations of such circles are supported by the teaching staff. Student circles have the right to decide, after the opinion of the teaching staff is heard, on planning and organising their own community life, electing their functionaries and are entitled to represent themselves in the student council.

Diákönkormányzat/ The Student Council Students and student circles may create student councils to represent students’ interests. The teacher with higher teacher qualification nominated for this task by the head of the institution on the basis of the student council proposer for a period of five years has to support the work of the student council. The student council has to be requested to express its opinion a) before the approval of the operational and organisational rules of the school, b) before determining the principles of providing social benefits for students, c) on the use of youth policy funds, d) prior to the approval of school regulations.

Differenciálás/Differentiation According to NCC differentiation means that different students may not be taught the same content in the same way. It is about personalized teaching: adaptation to the individual student. Differentiation can involve the content taught, in which case the student's abilities and interests play a role in choosing study materials. Differentiation can also involve the methods and tools of teaching and learning, the various competence areas and requirements and the schedule of progress in meeting those requirements, which means a differentiation between students who progress quicker and those who progress slower, but it cannot involve an increase of the gap. Doktori értekezés/Doctoral dissertation means a written work, composition or paper whereby the PhD / DLA candidate demonstrates in the course of the doctoral degree award procedure that he/she is capable of fulfilling an independent research assignment appropriate to the degree requirements.

Egész életen át tartó tanulás/Lifelong learning According to NCC the goal of lifelong learning is to meet the requirements of the knowledge-based society when it comes to professional skills and knowledge, as well as ensuring full-scale participation in social and economic life. Lifelong learning ensures self-development that results in the further development of skills as required by new technologies and the challenges of the labour market and modern society. Lifelong learning can also be interpreted in a broader way to include formal, non-formal and informal learning in all areas of life. Egésznapos iskola/ "all-day school" means the form of school organisation where lessons and other activities are organised evenly distributed over the morning and the afternoon periods. Its operation and system of requirements shall be determined in law by the Government.

Egészségügyi alkalmassági vizsgálat/Health test means a medical examination involving physical endowments and health condition to determine whether a person is capable of pursuing the chosen activity and whether such activity could jeopardise his/her health.

Esti képzés munkarendje/The schedule of evening training means an educational schedule by which during term-time classes are held after 16:00 or on non-working days.

Fejlesztési feladat/Development task According to NCC a form of activity assigned by the teacher and carried out by the student, aimed at improving the student's abilities and competences, usually taking place in the course of processing study materials. The NCC encourages personality development in education by establishing the development tasks that serve the development of the abilities of students. The development tasks define the areas of ability development. They specify which key competence should be developed in each of the phases of education. Goals may be defined at different levels of abstraction, and may place emphasis on different aspects of the teaching process. They are often presented as descriptions or indications of activities in the field of the organization of learning; in other cases, they list student activities to be carried out in the interest of development. Key development tasks, which pervade all elements of school education, play a special role in the regulation of curricula. They promote the strengthening of cross-curricular links, the unification of attitudes to teaching and learning and the development of students' personalities.

Fejlesztési területek – nevelési célok/Development fields – educational goals According to NCC Development fields – educational goals span fields of general knowledge, and – along with key competences – they pervade almost all elements of education in schools, promoting the strengthening of cross-curricular links, the unification of attitudes to teaching and learning and the development of students' personalities

Félév/Semester means an instruction provision period of five months.

Felmenő rendszer /Phasing-out system means an organisation principle on the basis of which compliance with the new and amended academic and examination regulations can be demanded from students who started their studies after the introduction of the regulations or from students who started their studies before introduction but chose to work for their degree in accordance with the new and amended academic and examination regulations.

Fenntartó/ provider means the natural or legal person who or which has obtained or has the right to perform public education tasks and meets the requirements necessary for operating the public education institution according to the provisions of the Act on Public Education.

Gimnázium/Grammar School or Upper Secondary General School A grammar school is an educational institution operating with four, six or eight grades respectively, if a preparatory language year is included, with five, seven or nine grades, where education founding general knowledge and preparing for the upper secondary-school leaving examination and commencing higher education studies is carried out.

Habilitáció/Habilitation means the assessment of instruction and lecturing skills and the academic performance of holders of a scientific degree.

Halmozottan hátrányos helyzetű/Disadvantaged or multiply disadvantaged student means a student (applicant) younger than twenty-five years at the time of registration and who was considered a disadvantaged or multiply disadvantaged student pursuant to the Act on Public Education during their secondary school studies.

Helyi Tanterv/ Local curriculum The lowest of the three levels of curricular regulation, and the one with the greatest practical importance. Local curricula are compiled by schools in accordance with the goals set out in their pedagogical programmeand fundamental principles. Schools' local curricula are generally created by the teaching staff by choosing one of the framework curricula approved by the minister responsible for education in accordance with local characteristics, and adapting it to their own needs within the established limits. A basic requirement for local curricula is to be in harmony with the selected framework curriculum on the basis of which they were created and fill the available time (10% on average) with teaching and learning contents and activities consistent with the local content and the profile of the school in question. The scheduling of requirements and study materials and the system of associated tools meet the expectations and development notions of the school's traditional partners, in accordance with the school's deed of foundation. Its local nature is ensured by the fact that its legitimacy is partly supplied by the agreement of the local affected parties, the approval of the teacher body, the support of the various participants and partners and the approval of the maintainer. As a secondary but not insignificant feature, it also contains elements of local culture up to an established limit. Local culture is understood to include the traditions of local society and its vision of the future.

Helyi tartalom/ Local content The term "local content" means: a) the elements of the – everyday and "holiday" – culture, geographical, natural, historical and economic environment, traditions and vision of the future specific tolocal society surrounding and using the school (local culture); and b) the unique needs and demands of the characteristic student groups present in the school, declared by the student groups themselves or discovered in the course of the school's educational activity. Accordingly, the local content appearing in local curricula in the curriculum programme may be an addition or it may be reinterpretation to a certain extent.

Intézményi Tanács/ Institutional Council Parents, students, the teaching staff, the local government of the seat of the institution, historic churches and local economic chambers may establish an institutional council in the school for the representation of the interest of local communities, with an equal number of representatives and the delegates of the government office competent in the seat of the institution.

Iskolaszék/ School Board School boards may be established to facilitate the educational and teaching work at schools and to promote the cooperation of the teaching staff, parents and students, the operators of the institution, as well as other institutions involved in the operation of the institution, with an equal number of representatives of parents, the teaching staff, and the student council.

Kar/Faculty means the organisational unit in charge of the instruction, research, and artistic activities of related degree programmes in one or more fields of training or discipline of science as defined in the educational programme,a) University faculty means an organizational unit where a) the number of full-time lecturers is 40 or more b) at least half of the full-time lecturers and researchers have a scientific degree, and lecturers with a scientific degree carry out regular research activity c) the number of students participating in full-time day-time training is no more than 35 students per full-time lecturer with a scientific degree d) at least three of the full-time lecturers and researchers are core members of the university’s doctoral school. College faculty means an organizational unit where a) the number of full-time lecturers it at least 35, b) at least one third of full-time lecturers has a scientific degree.

Képesítési keretrendszer/Qualification framework means the general characteristics of the specific degrees in the multi-cycle training system that are identical in each field of training.

Képzési és kimeneti követelmények Programme completion and exit requirements mean the knowledge, skills, proficiency and abilities (competencies) whose acquisition is a precondition for acquiring a diploma in the given programme.

Képzési program/Educational programme means the complex training document of the HE institution, which contains a) a detailed programme and academic requirements of the Bachelor, Master and one-tier trainings, higher education vocational trainings and specialist postgraduate programmes, b) a vocational training programme in higher education vocational training, and c) the plan of the doctorate course, together with detailed rules of training, thus the curriculum, the programme of studies and course-units, and the evaluation and assessment methods together with the pertaining procedures and rules.

Kereszttanterv és Kereszttantervi (tantárgyközi) elem/Cross-curricula and Cross-curricula element According to NCC, cross-curricula are common development tasks that span fields of general knowledge and subjects . A cross-curricular topic is one that is not taught and learned as part of one subject area or subject, but by coordinating several. Common requirements help break down the barriers between subjects and ensure a unified approach in teaching/learning, thus contributing to the development of students' personalities. Essentially, development fields and key competences belong in this category, but the new National Core Curriculum adds content elements to cross-curricular requirements as well.

Kerettanterv/Framework curriculum According to NCC the minister responsible for education approves and issues elective framework curricula regarding each phase of education based on the National Core Curriculum, containing content elements and serving as the basis for local implementation. The precondition of approval is that the framework curriculum needs to be suitable for implementing the development tasks and general knowledge contents defined in the National Core Curriculum, and it needs to be possible to attach to it detailed educational programme packages which provide specialized help for the application of the framework curriculum as the school's local curriculum. Framework curricula define the system of subjects, the time frame (number of classes) of each subject, the structure of study materials and their distribution among grades, as well as the exit criteria of the last grade of the phase of education in question and the basic content of textbooks. Each framework curriculum may also offer optional alternatives regarding all these elements within their own system. Within the specified limits, each school adapts the framework curriculum to its own situation. Framework curricula are made for one specific school type (basic school, secondary grammar school, vocational secondary school, vocational school, etc.).

Készségek és képességek/ Skills and ability According to NCC a skill is an automated, often "overlearned" component of activities that requires no conscious control and can be executed without direct monitoring by the attention-execution system. This basic characteristic of skills does not preclude skills from functioning as the automated component of conscious activities. Obtaining or forming skills requires the learning of rules and their extensively repeated application (e.g. spelling). Abilities are innate and change in accordance with the interaction of the programme of biological development and the environment; their result is the capability for some type of action or performance. Abilities form over long time periods, starting inexorably at a certain point in childhood and puberty (e.g. the appearance of the ability to think logically); this provides a foundation for the teaching of skills. The teaching and learning of skills requires a sufficient level of basic ability. Abilities are innate but they can be developed. Biological and environmental (family, school etc.) influences supply the natural environment of ability development; a person's set of abilities changes and develops in the course of human activity. There are certain general abilities (intelligence, creativity, the components of the knowledge acquisition system) that are expressed in a wide range of activities; there are also specialized abilities that are only employed in certain special fields (dexterity, musical ability, vivid imagination, the ability to do well in certain specific sports). Abilities and skills are closely related: abilities supply the foundation for skills; at the same time, skills and knowledge are two crucial and mutually required and determinative components of the same thing, determining competences together.

Kiemelt figyelmet igénylő gyermek/children requiring special attention means a) children / students requiring special treatment: aa) children / students with special education needs, ab) children / students with difficulties in integration, learning or behaviour, ac) particularly gifted or talented children / students, b) children / students with disadvantages or multiple disadvantages according to the Act on Child Protection and Guardianship Administration.

Kiemelten tehetséges gyermek/particularly gifted or talented children means children / students requiring special treatment, who are highly creative and possess above-average general or special skills, and strong motivation and commitment may be generated in them towards the task.

Kollégium/Hall of Residence A hall of residence is an educational institution which provides for the requirements necessary for conducting school studies where it is necessary a) for the students who study far from their residence to exercise their freedom to choose the school or study in a nationality language or in an adapted physical educational institution, b) owing to circumstances at home which jeopardise the physical integrity and mental health or the learning of the student.

Kompetencia és kulcskompetenciák/ Competence and key competences According to NCC, a competence is an amalgamation of knowledge and skills that, if accompanied by the right attitudes, ensures that the individual is able and ready to act effectively and successfully in a given situation. In the interpretations and key competence recommendations of the European Union, "competence" means a dynamically shaped complex cognitive and psychological structure made up of a system of knowledge, abilities, skills and attitudes that enables the individual to carry out certain activities. The curriculum includes competences, development tasks, activities, abilities and skills. A system of knowledge is always assumed to be associated with them. Among the various competence systems, the Hungarian National Core Curriculum is based on the EU convention, the so-called key competence system. On the one hand, these key competences provide an overview of required general knowledge; on the other, they define a modern approach to education.

Követelmények/Requirements According to NCC the term "requirement" means, on the one hand, the totality and system of the development tasks that allows public education institutions to best develop students' personalities within the time frames prescribed by law. On the other hand, it also refers to the unified system closing each phase of public education, set up by the framework curriculum and the local curriculumin the form of curricular requirements. It is a structured system of norms and criteria serving as the basis of assessing student performance and determining whether the student can enter a higher grade.

Közműveltség/ General competences According to NCC general competences mean acknowledged, relevant knowledge that holds value to the community; it includes, among other things, the skills, abilities and competences necessary for cooperation. It includes a sense of community and personal values, a national and European identity and the shared moral norms that make it possible to fully experience these identities. It is also characterized by critical thinking, liberty, responsibility and a drive towards sustainability, conservation and renewal. The fundamental elements of (national) general competences are: acknowledged, relevant knowledge that holds value to the community; skills, abilities and competences necessary for cooperation; a sense of community and personal values, a national and European identity; shared moral norms; critical thinking, liberty, responsibility; sustainability, conservation and renewal.

Köznevelési Híd Programok/ Public Education Bridge Programmes By performing complex educational, social, cultural, pedagogical tasks for developing the skills and the personality, the Public Education Bridge Programmes assist the students in joining secondary education or vocational training or the obtaining of knowledge necessary for getting employed and starting independent life. School-age students who have basic school qualification (ISCED 2) but have not been admitted to an upper secondary school may continue their studies in the Bridge I programme upon the initiative of the basic school. The education organised in the Bridge I programme complements the knowledge and competences required but missing for the continuation of studies by providing differentiated development paths building on individual abilities and needs. The education organised in the Bridge I programme prepares the students for the acquisition of learning methods adjusted to their individual abilities and, within the framework of the career orientation function, introduces to the students the knowledge necessary to entering the labour market. Within the framework of the Bridge I programme, students take entrance examination to a secondary school. Upon the completion of the programme, the organising school issues a certificate on the fulfilment of the study requirements. The Bridge I programme is organised so as to provide hall of residence to the students concerned if necessary. If the school-age student does not have basic school qualification (ISCED 2) , in the school year in which s/he turns fifteen, provided that s/he has successfully completed six grades in the basic school, the school shall initiate admission of the student to the Bridge II programme. The education provided in the Bridge II programme motivates for learning and develops the skills required for the acquisition of certain professions set out by law; performs career orientation duties within the group of occupations and may prepare for the acquisition of partial vocational qualification. The Bridge II programme closes with a final examination of which the organising school issues a certificate. The successful final examination certifies partial vocational qualification and entitles the holder for continuing studies in an upper secondary school. Within the framework of the Bridge II programme, students acquire all the knowledge necessary for commencing vocational training and also acquire the theoretical and practical knowledge elements required for joining vocational training. Following the successful completion of the Bridge II programme, the students shall be prepared for the vocational examination in the vocational training grade or grades.

Köznevelési Intézmény Vezetője/The Head of the Public Education Institution The head of the public education institution has to a) be responsible for the professional and legal operations and finances of the institution, b) exercise the employer’s rights, c) decide on every issue in connection with the operations of the institution, not delegated to the competence of others by law, collective agreement or public employees’ regulation, d) be responsible for the preparation of the institutional regulations, e) approve the pedagogical programme of the institution, f) represent the institution. In addition the head of the education institution shall be responsible for a) the pedagogical work, b) leading the teaching staff, c) the preparation, implementation, professional organisation and control of decisions within the jurisdiction of the teaching staff, d) providing for the personnel and material conditions required by the operations of the educational institution on the basis of the available budget, e) the worthy organisation of national and school festivities aligned to the working order, f) the organisation and provision of child and youth protection responsibilities, g) the provision of healthy and safe working conditions for education, h) the appropriate cooperation with the school board, the employees’ interest representation organisations and student councils, parent organisations, i) the prevention of accidents of students / children, j) the organisation of regular health checks for children / students, k) the compliance with and the requirement of compliance with the teacher’s norms of ethics.

Közösségi szolgálat/ community service means social and environmental protection activity, as well as its educational processing, carried out individually or in group for the advantage of the local community of the student, which is carried out within organised framework and is independent of financial interests.

Kredit/ Credit means a unit of students’ work which represents in relation to the course-unit or curricular unit the estimated time necessary for the acquisition of a specific body of knowledge and the fulfillment of requirements; one credit equals 30 study hours on average, and the value of a credit – supposing that the student’s performance was accepted – does not depend on the evaluation the student’s knowledge received.

Levelező képzés munkarendje/Training schedule of correspondence training means a schedule of training provision where, unless otherwise stated in an agreement concluded with the students concerned, the contact hours of students are delivered in a condensed form, on working days or on regular holidays once every two weeks at the most, and the methods of distance learning are applied in the rest of the training.

Magyar állami (rész)ösztöndíjas hallgató/Fully(partially) State Funded Student means students whose places are fully (or partially) funded by the State of Hungary.

Magyar állami (rész)ösztöndíjjal támogatott képzés/ Fully (or partially) State funded programme HE Programme fully or partially funded by the State of Hungary

Mentorprogram /Mentoring programme means a particular form of training where disadvantaged students are assisted with preparation by the student or lecturer of the higher education institution.

Minősítési eljárás/certification procedure means the procedure for the certification of the teacher’s performance which is necessary for promotion.

Működte''tő/Operator municipality Municipality owning the school site operates the school infrastructure.

Műveltségi terület/ Subject area According to NCC general knowledge content elements of education, chosen from the domains of national and universal culture based on social, pedagogical, psychological and logical considerations. The National Core Curriculum – taking into account the integrative nature of modern culture with respect to the theory of science and didactics – describes overarching fields of general knowledge. The fields of general knowledge provide a framework on the basis of which separate or integrated subjects can be created by framework curricula, local curricula and curricular programmes (the latter always specify subjects by nature).

Nemzeti Alaptanterv/ National Core Curriculum The NCC is the fundamental document of the regulation of Hungarian national public education. It is not a curriculum in the traditional sense of the word, as it does not prescribe subjects, class numbers or the distribution of the study materials among grades. It is more of a basis for drawing up framework curricula and local curricula, subject-level programmes, examination requirements, textbooks and other study aids. The core curriculum is national in nature because it transmits and promotes shared national values, contributing to the conservation of national traditions and the development of the sense of national identity. The National Core Curriculum is issued by the Government by decree. As required by the Act on National Public Education, the core curriculum is periodically reviewed.

Nevelési év/ kindergarten year means, in the kindergarten, the period from 01 September to 31 August of the following year.

Óraadó/ part-time teacher means a teacher who is employed under a general agreement for teaching not more than ten lessons or activities a week.

Óvoda/Kindergarten  is an institution educating the child from the age of three until the start of compulsory education. A kindergarten may also admit children who will turn three within six months. Children from the year they turn 3 until 31 August of the given year have to participate in at least four hours of education. Parents may ask the exemption of the child from kindergarten education depending on the ability, the conditions of the family and the individual circumstances of the child. The permission is issued by the district notary in accordance with the opinion of the head of the kindergarten and the nurse of the district.

Óvodai Nevelés Országos Alapprogramja/The Framework Curriculum for Kindergartens issued by the government determines the principles of education in kindergartens in Hungary. The kindergartens develop their own local curriculum on the basis of this Framework. Regularly but at least every five year the minister responsible for education revises the Framework in line with the experience meantime gained.</p>

Pályaalkalmassági vizsgálat/ Aptitude test means the verification of abilities to determine whether the applicant possesses the abilities and characteristics that enable him or her to undertake the studies and to pursue the activity that corresponds to the professional or specialised qualification.

Pedagógiai Program/ Pedagogical Programme Education in kindergartens, at schools and in halls of residence is conducted in accordance with the pedagogical programme. The pedagogical programme is adopted by the educating staff and approved by the head of the institution. For provisions of the pedagogical programme that impose additional obligations on the provider, the consent of the provider is required in order to take effect. The pedagogical programme has to be made public. As part of the pedagogical programme of the school, a local curriculum has to be developed to complement the framework curriculum issued by the Minister. The local curriculum specifies which of the framework curricula issued by the Minister was chosen and makes provisions for the use of up to ten per cent of the time frame of compulsory and non-compulsory class activities defined in the general curriculum. The hall of residence also has to develop its pedagogical programme taking into consideration the pedagogical programme of the school concerned.

Pedagógiai Szakszolgálatok/Pedagogical Assistance Services the educational work of the parents and the teachers as well as the performance of the duties of the educational institutions are assisted by pedagogical assistance services. Pedagogical assistance services are: a) adapted physical education consulting, early development, education and care, b) developmental education, c) the expert and rehabilitation activity examining learning ability, and the national expert and rehabilitation activity, d) educational guidance, e) speech therapeutic care, f) further study and career counselling, g) conductive educational service, h) adapted physical education, i) school psychology and kindergarten psychology service, j) promotion of particularly talented children / student.

Pedagógiai-szakmai szolgáltatások/ Pedagogical Professional Services The work of educational institutions, pedagogical professional service institutions and their operators and that of teachers, as well as the activity related to the protection of the interest of students are assisted by pedagogical professional services. Pedagogical professional services are: a) pedagogical evaluation, b) professional counselling and special subject-related tasks, c) provision of educational information, d) public education administration services, e) supporting and organisation of the training, in-service training and self-education of the teachers, f) organisation and harmonisation of study, sports and talent promotion competitions, g) information and counselling service for students. The provision of the pedagogical professional services is regulated in a decree by the minister responsible for education.

Pedagógusok előmeneteli rendszere/ Promotion System of Teachers The Act on Public Education guarantees the possibility of promotion of employees in teacher position throughout their career. Employees in teacher position may reach the following grades on the basis of their qualification, experience and research work a) Trainee, b) Teacher I., c) Teacher II., d) Master teacher, e) Research Teacher. With the exception of the teacher in the Trainee category, teachers are promoted on the basis of employment in a teacher position once in three years’ time one pay grade higher. The government office organises the certification examination and the certification procedure for teachers.

Résztanulmányok folytatása/ Supplementary Studies in another higher education institution means the period when a student obtains credit in another higher education institution while enjoying a visiting student status.

Sajátos nevelési igényű gyermek/children / students with special education needs means children / students requiring special treatment who, based on the expert opinion of the committee of experts, are handicapped or have perceptual, mental deficiency or speech disorder, or have multiple disabilities in case of the simultaneous occurrence of several deficiencies or have autism spectrum disorder or any other psychic disorder (serious disorder concerning learning or the control of attention or behaviour).

Szakiskola/ Vocational School (upper secondary) Except for the special and skills development vocational schools and with the exception of the vocational school training forms defined in the Act on Vocational Education and Training, vocational schools have three vocational training grades comprising education of subjects in cultural domains and vocational theoretical and practical training necessary for obtaining the vocational qualification concerned.

Szakközépiskola/Vocational Upper Secondary School A vocational secondary school have four upper secondary teaching years which prepare for vocational upper secondary school certificate and upper secondary-school leaving examination, the continuation of studies in institutions of (vocational) higher education or for seeking employment and pursue activities as well as establishing general knowledge, where vocational theoretical and practical education is also conducted. Vocational secondary schools, following the twelfth grade, are engaged in preparation for the vocational examination of the vocational qualification related to the sector of the vocational secondary school examination subject to the completion of the last secondary teaching year or secondary school-leaving certificate, as defined in the National Register of Qualifications.

Szakmai alkalmassági vizsga /Attestation of competence means an examination determined by the higher education institution which measures the abilities required for the selected professional or specialised qualification and examines whether the student possesses the abilities whose optimal development ensures completion of the preparatory phase.

Szakmai gyakorlat /Practical course means partially independent student activity carried out in an external practical training location or a practical training location belonging to the higher education institution as part of higher education vocational training, Bachelor, Master or one-tier training.

Székhelyen kívüli képzés /Off-site training means full-time or part-time higher education provided at a site other than the place of operation (seat, establishment) of a higher education institution.

Szülői szervezet/ Parental Organisation Parents may establish parental organisations (associations) to exercise their rights and fulfil their obligations at kindergartens, schools and halls of residence, with the right of expressing opinion and submitting proposal on issues concerning the operation and the work of the institution.

Tanári, tanítói tevékenység/Teacher activity According to NCC Pedagogical procedures aimed at improving the efficiency of student activities; they include motivation, organizing access to information, helping students along their individual learning paths, promoting group cooperation during studies, carrying out diagnostic, formative and summative evaluations and preparing diagnoses and prognoses.

Tanév/ school year means, in schools and halls of residence, the period from 01 September to 31 August of the next year.

Tanév/Academic year means an instruction provision period of ten months.

Tanítási év/ teaching year means, unless otherwise provided by law, the term time from the first working day of September of each year until the last working day before 16 June of the next year, except for the year of school-leaving or vocational examination; in the vocational training years of vocational secondary schools and vocational schools where no subjects in cultural domains are educated in the cases regulated by the Act on Vocational Education and Training, the teaching year may also be commenced in February as defined in the ministerial decree on the order of the school year,

Tanítási nap/school day means in each form any day used for educational lessons or form or group sessions being a part of the educational programme of the school which may not be carried out within the framework of school lessons including but not limited to school excursions, environmental educational events or cultural or sports events provided that the number of activity hours reaches three.

Tanóra/Contact hour means a class requiring the personal cooperation of the lecturer for the fulfilment of the academic requirements specified in the curriculum (lecture, seminar, practice, consultation), with a duration of no less than 45 minutes and no more than 60 minutes.

Tanterv/Curriculum means an educational plan based on the programme’s completion and exit requirements, made up of: classes broken down by programme, the class and examination plan according to curricular units, the control and evaluation system and the specific programmes of curricular units.

Tantervi idő felosztása/The distribution of curricular time According to NCC, the distribution of the taught time prescribed by legislative acts (taking into account financing and mental health issues in broad context) in accordance with pedagogical objectives among subjects and grades. Traditionally, curricula included weekly hours; recently, they switched to listing annual hours, indicating that epochal solutions (project weeks, modules and shorter specialized courses, etc.) are also didactically acceptable.

Tantervi tananyagtartalom (tananyag)/ Curricular content According to NCC curricular content means the knowledge to be acquired in the course of teaching and learning, chosen by the curriculum authors and arranged in accordance with didactic principles. Curricular content usually has two levels. The first level is the curricular content that defines the primary data, themes, topics, concepts, formulas, place names, persons, works, grammatical rules, etc. of the field or subject in question in the form of a detailed list (the "canon"). The second level includes content that represents the combination or juncture of several topics; it focuses on logical relationships and key concepts that are relevant for transmitting general knowledge.

Tanulási eredmények/ Learning outcomes According to NCC Learning outcomes are outcome requirements; concrete goals that are to be reached by the end of the educational course as a result of the teaching-learning process by completing the education. Learning outcomes to be achieved by students are usually described competences made up of a combination of 1) knowledge, 2) abilities and skills and 3) attitudes, commitments, views, responsibilities and behaviours.

Tanulási-tanítási folyamat/ Teaching-learning process According to NCC the teaching-learning process is a series of communicative and interactive activities taking place between the students and the teacher and among students. It involves the active processing and effective learning of the study material (general competences) and the development of students' competences, and it teaches students how to learn on their own, become conscious of their own cognitive processes (meta-cognition) and acquire a high level of motivation for learning. In this process, differentiated, pedagogically established units of content are taught while taking into account the laws of the learning process, using continuous feedback, appropriate motivation and the active participation of students.

Tanulói tevékenység/ Student activity According to NCC student activity refers to the system of activities in the course of which – with the teacher's advice, guidance and evaluation – students process and learn the requirements associated with the study material defined by the curriculum that can or must be learned in school.

Távoktatás/ Distance education means a particular form of training, involving the use of ICT teaching aids, teaching-learning methods and digital study materials, based on the interactive relationship between lecturer and student and the student’s individual work, where the number of contact hours is less than 30% of the contact hours in full-time training

Többcélú Intézmény/Multi-purpose Institutions The following may be multi-purpose institutions a) uniform kindergarten and crèche, b) uniform school or complex school, c) public education institution under joint management, d) general community centre, e) uniform adapted physical and conductive education methodological institution. A multi-purpose institution may be established if the financial, material, technical and personnel requirements are provided for the performance of all duties.

Végbizonyítvány (abszolutórium)/Pre-degree certificate means a certificate that states without qualifications and evaluations that the student has passed the curricular examinations and – except for passing the language examination and writing the degree thesis – satisfied all academic requirements and has earned the number of credits prescribed in the programme completion and exit requirements – except for the credit points rendered to the degree thesis.

Vizsgakövetelmények/Examination requirements According to NCC a system of criteria at the borders of the major phases of the education system, with the aim of facilitating the comparison of the performance of individual students with the legally established levels. In the Hungarian education system, this role is traditionally assigned to the secondary school leaving examination. The competence-based approach to teaching and learning prioritizes the application of knowledge acquired in the course of school education when assessing student performance. The examination requirements prescribed by legislation (e.g. the requirements of the secondary school leaving examination and the professional and examination requirements) are based on the National Core Curriculum.