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Hungary:Funding in Education

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

In the case of both kindergarten and public education, public money plays a crucial role in funding. The funding of kindergartens is usually provided by the local government as maintainer. A significant change concerning public education funding was introduced in 2013 when the state took over the maintenance of local government schools. From this point on, the maintenance of state owned schools (formerly mostly local government schools) has been provided by the public institution maintainer (Klebelsberg Institution Maintenance Centre, KLIK). Funding is primarily provided from the state budget and partly through local government support.

The introduction of central maintenance of public education institutions had multiple objectives; the elimination of education funding problems resulted by the financial difficulties of some former maintainers, as well as the mitigation of quality disparities in education between schools, which was also a result of financial problems. Looking at analysis over an extended period of time it can be observed that public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP has continuously been decreasing since 2005; from 5.3% in 2005 down to 3.9% in 2013. This is partly due to the GDP increase, but also a result of the decreasing number of pupils. Considering the entire period of time, the nominal value of the expenditure per students has significantly increased (5-20% per ISCED levels) but has not even nearly reached the 45% inflation observed in the same period (2005-2013). Regarding each level: both in kindergarten (ISCED 0) and higher education, the state expenditure per person has varied; but in public education (ISCED 1-3) after a similarly varying trend, the expenditure has been steadily decreasing since 2010. In spite of all of these trends the proportion of the kindergarten, primarily school, secondary school and higher education costs within the total national expenditure spent on the entire school system between 2005 and 2013 has not changed significantly; in 2013 it amounted to 26, 23, 17 and 34% respectively. In 2013, the education expenditures within the state budget (including accumulation expenditures) amounted to HUF 1,142 billion, which represents a 1% decrease at nominal value compared to the previous year. This decrease is smaller than the approximately 4% drop experienced in previous years; which means that education cuts have slowed down.

Among the training programmes in connection with the various ISCED levels the expenditures of the kindergartens at nominal value have significantly increased (11%), and the ISCED 1-2 level primarily school expenditures have slightly increased (2.8%). However, in secondary school education (ISCED 3) a very significant (20%) and in higher education a slight (1.6%) decrease was experienced. The 1.7% inflation (customer price increase) reduces the increase of expenditures at nominal value, but increases the amount of reduction. Within the education state budget, 50% of expenditures are staff costs, 2.3% is the ratio of accumulation expenditures and 1.5% is renovation costs. The proportion and the amount of the latter ones have dramatically dropped in just one year: in 2012 they amounted to 6.5% and 3.1%, respectively.