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Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

Children and pupils requiring special attention

In Hungarian kindergarten and school education the following groups of children and pupils receive special attention based on the act on general education:

  • children and pupils in need of special support, including:
  1. children/pupils with special educational needs,
  2. children/pupils with social, learning and behavioural difficulties,
  3. exceptionally gifted children/pupils.
  • disadvantaged children/pupils and those with multiple disadvantages.

Children/pupils with special educational needs: children/pupils in need of special support who fall into one of the following eight categories on the basis of expert opinion:

  • children/pupils with a physical disability
  • children/pupils with sensory (visual, auditory)  impairment
  • children/pupils with mental impairment
  • children/pupils with speech impairment
  • children/pupils with multiple impairment
  • children/pupils with autism spectrum disorder
  • children/pupils with other psychological developmental disorders
  • children/pupils with behavioural regulation disorder

Children/pupils with social, learning and behavioural difficulties

Children and pupils with social, learning and behavioural difficulties are children and pupils requiring special attention who, based on expert opinion, significantly underperform compared to their age, or have social relationship problems or learning, behaviour regulation deficiencies, or their integration into the community or personal development is impeded or shows irregularities but do not qualify as students with special education needs

Exceptionally gifted children/pupils

According to the present legal definition exceptionally gifted children, pupils are children/pupils requiring special attention, who are highly creative and possess above-average general or special abilities, strong motivation and task commitment.

Disadvantaged children/pupils and those with multiple disadvantages

Disadvantaged children/pupils: are those who are eligible to a regular child protection allowance, have come of age, and come under one of the following conditions:

  • low school attainment level of the parent or adoptive parent if it can be stated of both parents, the single parent raising the child or the adoptive parent, based on their voluntary statement, that they have completed maximum primary general education at the time of requesting regular child protection allowance, or
  • low employment level of the parent or adoptive parent if it can be stated of any of the parents raising the child or the adoptive parent that they are eligible to a social welfare benefit of working-age persons pursuant to Section 33 of the Act on Social Administration and Social Benefits at the time of requesting regular child protection allowance, or they are registered job seekers for at least 12 months within the 16 months prior to the date of requesting regular child protection allowance, or
  • insufficient dwelling environment or conditions of the child if it can be stated that the child lives in a segregated disadvantaged neighbourhood, as defined in the integrated urban development strategy of the municipality concerned, or in substandard housing or emergency dwelling, or in dwelling conditions where the conditions required for healthy development are provided only to a limited extent.

Children/pupils with multiple disadvantages 

  • those who are eligible to a regular child protection allowance, have come of age, and come under at least two of the conditions determined for the disadvantage situation  
  • those in public care
  • those young adults who are in pupil or student status  and are in after-care.

 

Support measures for children/pupils in need of special support

The following institutions and professionals have a prominent role in providing services for children/pupils in need of special support:

  • institutions of the Pedagogical Assistance Service undertaking the following tasks: special education counselling, early intervention, education and care; individual development of severely disabled children/pupils; , expert commitee activity; parenting advice, speech therapy, academic and career guidance, conductive education, adapted physical education, kindergarten and school psychology, catering for the exceptionally gifted.
  • separate special education institutions, conductive education institutions
  • integrated special education and conductive education institutions
  • inclusive schools and kindergartens
  • mobile network of special needs teachers
  • developmental educators

There is one Pedagogical Assistance Service institution in each county made up of a head office as well as county level and school-district level subordinate offices, which is supplemented by county and national level subordinate offices in Budapest. County level tasks of the Pedagogical Assistance Service include some of the experet committee activities as well as academic and career guidance. The activities are performed by the head office, in greater counties by the head office and subordinate office(s) with county level competence together.

School-district level tasks performed by the subordinate offices are:

  • special education counselling, early intervention, education and care
  • individual development of severely disabled children/pupils,
  • parenting advice,
  • speech therapy,
  • conductive education,
  • adapted physical education,
  • kindergarten and school psychology,
  • gifted education
  • school-district level expert committee activity .

Children, pupils in need of special support are identified by the expert committees operated at the Pedagogical Assistance Services. Within the frame of the above activity, based on the complex psychological, pedagogical-special educational and if required medical examination, or if the need of special education is suspected, based on the complex psychological, pedagogical-special educational and medical examination, an expert opinion is prepared by the expert committee of the institution, among others to assess whether the developmental state reguired for entering the school system is reached (for example if the child did not go to kindergarten, or delayed starzing of the school would be more favourable for the child), and to assess or exclude social, learning and behavioural difficulties, or special education needs in the case of physical disability, sensory (visual, auditory) impairment, mental impairment, speech impairment, several impairments, i.e. multiple impairment, autism spectrum disorder, or other psychological developmental disorder,

The expert committee in its expert opinion makes a proposal for the provision of the child, pupil in need of special support, the method, form and place of provision, the types of the Pedagogical Assistance Services related to the provision, the required expert and his/her tasks. The parent is informed on the institutions that allow SEN children to participae in early intervention and care, kindergarten education and individual development of severely disabled children/pupils.

 

Based on the recommendation of the expert committee, SEN children/pupils can fulfil their study obligations in a SEN or inclusive institution. The general education institution can be selected by the parent from the recommended institutions.

 

The act on national general education serves the provision of SEN children by providing extra services, and with regulations offering positive discrimination.

            

Targeted support programmes for disadvantaged and multiply disadvantaged children/pupils

  • Sure Start Children Centres
  • Integrational Pedagogical System
  • Complex Instructions Programme
  • Arany János Programmes
  • ‘Útravaló’ (For the Road) Scholarship Programmes
  • ‘Tanoda’ programmes (extracurricular learning centres)

Relevant legislation 

The guideline for the kindergarten and school education of children and pupils with special educational needs  supports the (inclusive) education implemented in mainstream institutions, in addition to this it gives the tasks and frames for the establishment of the local curriculum and local practice.