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Hungary:Education in the Europe 2020 Strategy

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

Europe 2020 is a 10-year strategy for a smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The strategy identifies a number of key areas which concern the field of education and training:

• a common headline target with twin targets on early school leaving and higher education participation;

• country specific recommendations;

• the Annual Growth Survey under the European semester of economic governance;

• the question of investment in education;

• and the agenda for New skills and jobs.


Headline Targets for Education and Training

The strategy identifies a Europe 2020 headline target with two underlying targets for education and training to be reached by the EU by 2020:

  • To reduce the share of early school leavers to less than 10%.
  • To increase the share of the population aged 30–34 having completed tertiary or equivalent education to at least 40%.

EU member states have translated these two EU wide-targets into specific national targets. As part of the objective of Europe 2020 aimed at the improvement of the level of education, Hungary intends:

  • to reduce the proportion of early school leavers (of the population aged between 18 and 24) to 10 per cent and
  • to increase the share of population (aged 30-34) having completed tertiary level or equivalent to 30.3 per cent by 2020.


In terms of early school leaving, Hungary outperforms the EU average (12.7% in 2012 in the EU28) but the proportion of early leavers is still above the 10% target. It has been around 11% in the past few years, 11.5% in 2012. Most of the drop-outs are disadvantaged students who are less successful in school. Socio-cultural disadvantages should be mentioned as a major factor in early school-leaving, which represents a serious problem particularly in the disadvantaged regions.

The Public Education Act includes several measures to prevent early school leaving and dropping out:

  • obligatory kindergarten attendance from the age of 3 (taking effect in 2014), increasing the number of kindergarten places, free meals for children from disadvantaged families
  • including remedial activities in the curricula in order to support poorly performing pupils, remedial education (sessions in small groups assisting customized teaching),
  • ensuring the flexibility of the system (those having accomplished vocational training may continue their studies in 2-year programmes providing secondary school-leaving examinations)
  • improving the quality of school education by assessing and evaluating teaching activities, operating a monitoring system for professional and legal compliance and specifying qualification requirements

"Bridge Programmes": a type of formal, school-based education, introduced in September 2013, which provides assistance for pupils poorly performing in basic (single structure, ISCED 1+2) education and offers a chance to those unable to complete their lower secondary studies to continue their studies in upper secondary education. These short programmes are offered by vocational schools.

  • Pupils below the obligatory schooling age, who completed basic education, but were not admitted to an upper secondary school, can continue their studies in the Bridge 1 programme. Bridge 1 provides them with the fundamental skills and competencies that are necessary for the continuation of studies.
  • If a pupil below the obligatory schooling age (16) has not completed basic education but completed a minimum of six grades of the eight-grade basic education by the age of 15, their basic school initiates their admission to the Bridge 2 programme. The Bridge 2 programme prepares pupils for vocational training. The aim of the programme is to increase motivation for learning and developing the skills necessary for an occupation. It ends in a final examination including a vocational examination. Upon completion, students receive a certificate proving the accomplishment of basic education; if passing the vocational examination, students also receive a certificate for partial vocational qualification.

Additionally there are specific equal opportunity programmes for tackling early school leaving:

  • Arany János Talent Fostering Program for Disadvantaged Students is to enable pupils to successfully attend full-time secondary education providing a final examinations certificate. The program pays particular attention to talent fostering and multi-faceted, differentiated skill-development.
  • Arany János Talent Fostering Dormitory Program for Disadvantaged Students is based on the cooperation of schools and dormitories, developing key competences to prepare pupils for starting and then accomplishing upper secondary education and enter higher education or the labour market.
  • Arany János Talent Fostering Dormitory – Vocational School Program for multiply disadvantaged students aims at creating opportunities to obtain marketable qualification for those students who have slight chances to acquire qualification without entering the program. It provides an inclusive pedagogical environment to the target group.
  • "Tanoda" facilities, operated by NGOs and churches, continued to operate in 2013 partly relying on EU funding. They offer non-formal and informal learning and connect these to formal education. The aim of the programme is to promote the school progress of disadvantaged, multiply disadvantaged and migrant pupils in grades 5-12. The number of Tanoda learning centres is to increase from 60 to 300 in 2013 and the number of students studying there is 5-6000.

The ‘Provisions’ (Útravaló) Scholarship Program aims at improving the chances of young people in the continuation of their studies and in obtaining vocational qualifications, a certificate of final examinations or a degree. It provides financial aid and assistance via its mentor system for students in the 7th and 8th grades of single structure/basic school and secondary school students. It has three equal opportunities sub-programs: the Road to secondary school, Road to final examinations and Road to a qualification.

Second-chance programmes serve to remedy early school-leaving. The purpose of these programmes is to help young people, some of them beyond the compulsory schooling age, who dropped out without upper secondary qualifications to re-enter education and obtain such qualifications. They provide personalised teaching and develop digital competences. These programmes are implemented by vocational schools and general (upper) secondary schools..

The share of population (aged 30-34) having completed tertiary level or equivalent in Hungary was 29.9 per cent in 2012, which is below the EU average (35.7% in 2012 in the EU28) but has increased by almost 10 percentage points in the last 10 years.

The high dropout rate is an obstacle to increasing the share of graduates. One of the main reasons for student drop-out is the lack of information related to study and career options. In the interest of the better planning of studies, it is necessary to develop the student advisory system and career services, which help students to obtain their degree in the shortest time possible. The objective is to enable students to flexibly find their way amongst the various study and accreditation procedures and to develop their skills.

As one of the reasons for the prolongation of higher education studies is failing to acquire a language examination certificate (a prerequisite for obtaining a degree), language projects supported from the Structural Funds continue in order to enable students to attend foreign language courses and programmes held in a foreign language. The projects involve introducing innovative methodology in language teaching in higher education and providing language courses at universities and colleges.

With regard to the high drop-out rates and the prolongation of studies, it is also one of the aims to enhance students’ sense of responsibility and motivation. The state therefore requires students studying at state-funded places to obtain a diploma within one and a half times the prescribed study time. Otherwise students must repay 50% of the state support.

Vocational higher education, a new form of short-cycle programmes introduced in 2013, is one of the measures designed to streamline the structure of higher education. This may play an important role in increasing the ratio of graduates with tertiary qualifications. This form of vocational education (ISCED level 5) flexibly serves the economy’s need for professionals.

Since September 2012, new entrants to higher education may opt for a restricted-use loan at 2% interest under the "Student Loan 2" scheme, which can only be used for financing the tuiton fee - in addition to the traditional unrestricted-use "Student Loan 1" at an interest rate of 7.5%.

Country specific recommendations

In 2012 and 2013 the Council of the European Union put forward the following reccommendations for Hungary in the field of education and training:

In 2012:

  • Implement the National Social (Roma) Inclusion Strategy and mainstream it with other policies
  • Prepare and implement a national strategy on early school-leaving by ensuring adequate financing. Ensure that the implementation of the higher education reform improves access to education for disadvantaged groups.

In 2013:

  • Implement a credible and growth friendly fiscal strategy by specifying the necessary measures focusing on expenditure savings and preserve a sound fiscal position in compliance with the medium-term objective over the programme horizon
  • Address youth unemployment, for example through a Youth Guarantee. Reinforce training programmes to boost participation in lifelong learning. Continue to expand child-care facilities to encourage women's participation. Ensure that the objective of the National Social Inclusion Strategy is mainstreamed in all policy fields in order to reduce poverty, particularly among children and Roma.
  • Implement a national strategy on early school-leaving and ensure that the education system provides all young people with labour-market-relevant skills, competences and qualifications. Improve access to inclusive mainstream education, for those with disadvantages, in particular Roma. Support the transition between different stages of education and towards the labour market. Implement a higher-education reform that enables greater tertiary attainment, particularly by disadvantaged students.

Hungary adopted the National Social Inclusion Strategy in December 2011. The implementation of the strategy is based on three-year action plans. The action plan for 2012-2014 includes measures in the fields of child welfare, education, employment, healthcare, housing, stakeholder involvement and anti-discrimination. Concerning education the following tasks have been identified:

  • An action plan must be prepared in in order to increase access to kindergarten education for disadvantaged children aged 3. It should ensure that kindergarten education is available in all localities where justified by the number of disadvantaged children and children with multiple disadvantages. Furthermore kindergarten provision must also be accessable for children living in localities where there are no kindergartens.
  • Remedial and skills development activities must be promoted in kindergarten as well as in basic and upper secondary education. It is necessary to provide funding for the supplementary wage of teachers working in kindergartens/schools involved in providing these activities.
  • The 'Tanoda' (extra-curricular learning facilities) programmes and Second chance programmes must be continued in order to improve the school performance of students with multiple disadvantages, including Roma students, reduce drop-out rates and re-integrate early school leavers into the school system.
  • Targeted programmes must be launched to reduce school drop-out rates (with special regard to children/pupils with special educational needs).
  • Programmes and scholarship programmes promoting the educational success of disadvantaged young people, including Roma youths, must be continued and must, if possible, be reinforced at every level of education. The efficiency of the programmes must be monitored continuously.
  • In the interest of enhancing the efficiency of programmes, it is necessary to coordinate scholarship programmes for disadvantaged children, EU projects aimed at the improvement of educational achievements and the integrative pedagogical system.
  • The curriculum and examination requirements of teacher trainees as well as the curriculum of accredited in-service teacher training courses must feature theoretical and practical skills and competencies which are essential for inclusive education, personality development, skills develeopment and talent support of disadvantaged children, including Roma children.
  • In the interest of talent support and the improvement of the educational achievements of young Roma studying in higher education, the system of specialized Roma colleges must be extended and the legislation guaranteeing their safe operation must be adopted.
  • In the interest of promoting the inclusion of young people with multiple disadvantages participating in higher education and assisting the completion of their studies in higher education, it is necessary to extend the mentoring and counselling services of higher education institutions.
  • Inclusive pedagogical programmes must be developed, with special regard to the development of all-day schools and boarding facilities and the employment of specialists providing assistance in schools, especially in localities with segregated estates and in disadvantaged micro-regions.

A monitoring system with a set of indicators has been developed to ensure the efficient implementation of the National Social Inclusion Strategy. A monitoring working group was established in 2012 for coordinating the monitoring of implementation. The first annual monitoring report was published in June 2013.

The Ministry for Human Resources is preparing strategies for lifelong learning and for preventing early school leaving in accordance with the ex ante requirements of the 2014-2020 programming period and the programming documents of the government. It is expected to include prevention, intervention and compensation elements.

The access of disadvantaged groups to higher education is supported by the scholarship programme “Road to Higher Education” and extra scores in the admission procedure. Disadvantaged students studying at higher education institutions are supported through a mentoring and counselling programme.

In order to improve labour market conditions for young people, help them find their first job and help them acquire the necessary work experience, Hungary announced the "First Job Guarantee" central labour market programme on 1 September 2012 as a new measure, which is in line with the European Commission's recommendation set forth in the 2013 Annual Growth Survey. Employers undertaking to employ young job seekers within the framework of this programme were fully refunded for the wage and social contribution tax payable by them between 1 September and 31 December 2012. The programme helped altogether 7243 young job seekers to find employment. The First Job Guarantee programme was announced again on 1 March 2013 and supports youth employment until 31 December 2013.

The Council Recommendation on establishing a Youth Guarantee proposes member states to ensure that all young people under 25 receive a good-quality offer of employment, continued education, an apprenticeship or a traineeship within a period of four months of becoming unemployed or leaving formal education. Hungary is planning to introduce Youth Guarantee in 2014 in accordance with the Council Recommendation.

Investment

In the current crisis public budgets are under scrutiny including education and training. Nevertheless, the European Commission has stressed its conviction that, when consolidating their public finance, Member States should prioritise expenditure on growth-enhancing policies such as education and training.


Since January 2013, public education institutions (with the exception of kindergartens) have been maintained by the state, which also entails significant changes in funding. The state finances the salaries of teachers and staff directly supporting teaching as well as the related costs of materials. As a general rule, municipalities with a population of more than 3000 continue to operate their school infrastructure and bear the related costs, while smaller municipalities may hand that over to the state too. The aim of the measure is to break the link between the performance of schools and the wealth of municipalities maintaining their schools.

 
The Annual Growth Survey

The Annual Growth Survey (AGS) 2013 launches the European semester of economic governance. It is the basis for building the necessary common understanding about the priorities for action at national and EU level for the next twelve months, which should then feed into national economic and budgetary decisions. 

The 2013 Annual Growth Survey identifies five reform areas in relation to education and training. These are to:

  • raise the performance of education and training systems and overall skill levels, link the worlds of work and education more closely together

The new Public Education Act and the National Core Curriculum provide that pupils should familiarize themselves with as many work activities and occupations as possible from the first grade of school, in a way suitable for their age. Pupils in grades 5-8 are to analyze the characteristics of various professions.

A Government Decree is issued annually on the so-called national qualifications profile of school-based VET qualifications to be publicly funded, not funded by the state or funded up to a certain headcount. Vocational programmes fall into one of these categories upon the expert opinion of County Development and Training Committees, based on labour market needs, medium and long-term plans and economic trends.

  • reduce early school-leaving and facilitate the transition from school to work by developing quality traineeships, apprenticeships and dual learning models – classroom-based education combined with hands-on experience in the work place. Efforts to develop entrepreneurial skills are needed to support new business creation and improve employability levels of the young

The development of a vocational education and training system more responding to the needs of the economy has been started. The Vocational Training Act introduced the 3-year dual vocational training system, which provides practical training (in addition to theoretical classes) already from the first grade of vocational school. Practical training is mainly provided at businesses instead of in-school practical training facilities (tanműhely), which also gives insight to the world of work.

Due to a recent change in legislation, it is now possible to start apprenticeship at businesses as early as from grade 9 (instead of grade 10), on condition that students can only train in workshops operated only for training and not for production. Compliance with this regulation is monitored by the Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

Two projects have been launched in the Social Renewal Operational Programme for supporting the transition from apprenticeship to employment (SROP 2.3.4) and for supporting young people in becoming entrepreneurs (SROP 2.3.6). Both projects started at the beginning of 2013. The former is a traineeship programme, which will support utilizing the experience gained in the dual vocational training system. It provides financial support for SMEs that undertake to employ former apprentices as trainees. The latter is a scheme supporting young people aged 18-35 becoming entrepreneurs; it promotes acquiring and developing entrepreneurship skills and also provides start-up capital for young people with a feasible business plan.

  • develop and implement ’youth guarantee’ schemes whereby every young person under the age of 25 receives an offer of employment, continued education, an apprenticeship or a traineeship within four months of leaving formal education or becoming unemployed. Such schemes can be co-financed by the European Social Fund

The National Youth Strategy 2009-2024 has a chapter on the employment and career planning of young people. The document defines objectives and related indicators for several employment-related intervention areas (conscious career planning, gaining work experience, preventing and reducing youth unemployment). The Strategy is implemented through 2-year action plans.

A youth policy framework programme titled "New Generation Programme", adopted by the government at the end of 2011, focuses on improving the youth labour market situation.

The government have several measures for supporting the transition of young people from education to the labour market. Fresh graduates are one of the target groups of active labour market policies, especially those with low educational attainment or without any qualifications. Career orientation service continues to be developed in the Social Renewal Operational Programme. In addition, there are financial incentives for the employment of fresh graduates: employers who hire young people entering the labour market get a reduction on the public dues payable on wages

  • improve access to lifelong learning systems throughout working life, including for older workers, by strengthening partnerships of public and private institutions involved in the provision, application and updating of specific skills

A project (SROP 2.1.2) of the Social Renewal Operational Programme has been launched for developing foreign language and IT competences of the adult population in order to improve their employability. The aim is to involve 100,000 persons in language and IT training courses offered by accredited training institutions between December 2012 and August 2014. Participants have to be over 18 and cannot participate in another state-funded education programme (at school or university) at the same time. 95-98% of the tuition fee is covered by the state, depending on the place of residence of participants (disadvantaged areas receiving a higher proportion of funding). A network of 800 mentors has been set up for needs assessment, communications, recruiting and motivating participants and providing information on how to register.

  • improve the connection between education and lifelong learning systems and labour market needs. Short-cycle tertiary qualifications of two years, focused on areas where a skills shortage has been identified, as well as targeted mobility schemes, can prove particularly effective in current circumstances.

The development of practice oriented programmes is also of high priority in higher education. Internship opportunities suitable for the content of the programmes are promoted, where students are mentored by the employees or managers of businesses or other participants of business life. Businesses are encouraged to contact future employees (through grants, traineeship contracts, talent support etc.) when they are still in higher education. The new short cycle vocational higher education programmes contain one semester of traineeship. These programmes can only be launched by higher education institutions if they have entered into long-term cooperation with businesses providing traineeship places.

New Skills and Jobs

The European Union is committed to reach an employment level of 75% of its workforce by 2020. With the "Agenda for new skills and jobs", one of the Flagship Initiatives of the Europe 2020 strategy, the EU and the member states are stepping up labour market reforms, join forces to equip people with the right skills, attempt to improve working conditions and encourage the creation of new jobs. In this respect, Hungary undertakes the following measures in the fields of VET, higher education and adult education and training.

Vocational education and training

The main objective of changes introduced by the new Vocational Training Act and the Act on the Development of Vocational Training is to better align vocational training with the needs of the economy by reinforcing dual vocational training. By introducing the dual training, the time frames and content of training change significantly. The Act increases the responsibilities of the chambers of commerce and industry in the practical training. In order to strengthen the role of businesses, from 2013 on a wider range of business entities are entitled to providing training for students.

In order to align local/regional training offer and needs, the Regional Development and Training Committees were re-organised as County Development and Training Committees in October 2012. The committees prepare the vocational training development plans of the counties, which are part of the county-level regional development strategies. They cooperate with Regional Development Councils to plan the development of vocational education and training. They also participate in aligning VET development with the needs of the national economy, in career guidance and career tracking as well as in the preparation and organisation of invitations to tender.

In order to overcome skills shortages, a grant programme is in place for vocational school students with apprenticeship contracts.


Higher education

One of the objectives of the project called ‘Student and Institution Service Development in Higher Education’ (SROP 4.1.1), financed by the European Social Fund, is to improve adaptation to the labour market: the development of career tracking system at higher education institutions, the development of labour market surveys and reinforcing practical training. Currently the graduate career tracking system is being further developed, which involves upgrading the labour market statistics for graduates and providing technical support for higher education institutions for improving the support services they provide for their students.


Adult training

The new Adult Training Act, adopted in 2013, focuses on publicly funded training programmes meeting actual labour market demand. In accordance with national employment policy objectives, the Act aims at improving competitiveness and employability and integration of the disadvantaged in the labour market. To this end, it provides for improving the organisation of training courses, enhancing the quality of their content and reinforcing their supervision. It also lays the foundations for developing a career tracking system in adult training.

Türr István Training and Research Institute was established in 2011 by the merger of the Regional Training Centres, which were turned into Regional Directorates. Türr István Training and Research Institute is a public institution dedicated to adult training and the development of research methodology. The activities of the Institute include developing training programmes and curricula, developing adult training, improving housing conditions that hinder social inclusion and providing labour market services.

Two projects have been launched in the Social Renewal Operational Programme for supporting the transition from apprenticeship to employment (SROP 2.3.4) and for supporting young people in becoming entrepreneurs (SROP 2.3.6). Both projects started at the beginning of 2013. The former is a traineeship programme, which supports utilizing the experience gained in the dual vocational training system. It provides financial support for SMEs that undertake to employ former apprentices as trainees. This traineeship programme aims at easing transition from vocational training to employment, with the aim of providing opportunities of work experience for school leavers and in this way improving their future employability. The latter is a scheme supporting young people aged 18-35 becoming entrepreneurs; it promotes acquiring and developing entrepreneurship skills (managing finances, preparing a business plan, marketing, legal regulations) and also provides start-up capital for young people with a feasible business plan.