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Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

Pupil Assessment

A wide range of diagnostic assessment, used to measure students’ actual knowledge and ability levels, as well as formative and summative assessment, applied in connection with the assessment of their study progress and learning development, is used in the practice of the Hungarian primary schools.  

Diagnostic measurement are typically linked to school changes. School admission tests applied in the period of kindergarten-to-school transition and at the first grade of primary school belong to such diagnostics. Kindergartens, pedagogical assistance services and expert committees use various assessment tools. However, DIFER (Diagnostic Development Test System) of Hungarian development is increasingly used. This system of tools can be effectively used in kindergarten, in the period of transition from kindergarten to school and for lower graders in the diagnostics of criteria-oriented development of students’ cognitive abilities and their development.

Development and practical application of the national system of diagnostic measurements have been implemented through the National Assessment of Basic Competences since 2001. In accordance with the provisions of the Act on Public Education, comprehension abilities and mathematical literacy are tested on the full population of 6, 8 and 10 graders in the autumn of each school year. From school year 2005/06, testing of 4 graders takes place in every May. For the diagnostic and criteria-oriented assessment of skills and abilities of crucial importance in terms of the measurement, learning and mental development, each student of the age group concerned is tested for literacy, numeracy and writing skills out of the basic components of the key mother tongue, mathematical and cognitive competences.

In connection with the increasing knowledge of students and the development of their personality, as well as in context with the accomplishment of the tests designed to measure compliance with the requirements set for a particular grade, the Public Education Act provides that the performance and progress of students has to be regularly evaluated by marks, and parents should regularly receive detailed and definite information thereof. Schools are free to decide on the manner they wish to comply with this obligation, but should regulate this approach in their pedagogy programmes.

Pupils may be exempted from evaluation and assessment by the head master on the basis of the expert opinion of a committee of experts, if it is necessitated by the individual faculties or stage of development of the student.

The method of assessment of student achievement is regulated under the Act on Public Education (Section 54) as follows: “Educators shall regularly evaluate the performance and progress of students during the academic year by marks and assess their half-year and year-end achievements by grades. Half-year and year-end grades shall be based on the marks obtained.” The Act on Public Education provides for the use of a five-step scale for the evaluation and assessment of students’ knowledge as follows: very good (5), good (4), satisfactory (3), pass (2) and fail (1). Students’ conduct should be assessed on a four-step scale as follows: exemplary (5), good (4), varying (3), bad (2). The evaluation of students’ diligence differs from that of students’ conduct only in the designation of the lowest mark, i.e. “indolent”. Requirements for each mark and grade of conduct and diligence are set out in the school’s pedagogy programme and house rules. A school report card communicates a student’s performance by the marks scored (indicated in numerical form) in the course of the year to his/her parents. A half-year and a school year end certificate contains marks in written form. A school may decide and lay down in its pedagogy programme that students’ performance is evaluated in writing at the end of the school year, too. This issue should be specifically addressed in the local curriculum of the school. The local curriculum should also clarify the manner in which a school intends to adapt its own evaluation system to the marks specified by the Act on Public Education when a student changes schools and his/her parents ask the school to do so. As an exception, students in grades 1 to 2 should be assessed in writing according to whether they have done excellently, well or satisfactorily or need remedial teaching at the end of the first and second term in grade 1 and at the end of the first term in grade 2. The pedagogy programme of a school may specify the syllabi and subjects in which the performance and progress of a student do not have to be evaluated or assessed and it may also forbear from evaluating and assessing conduct and diligence.

The teacher teaching a particular subject is responsible for awarding marks. Marks scored by a student should be taken as a basis for his/her assessment at the end of the school year. Assessment and evaluation of a student’s conduct and diligence are the responsibilities of the head teacher, after seeking the opinion of the rest of class teachers and subject to the approval of the teaching staff. It is the school’s teaching staff that should collectively decide on whether or not a student is allowed to pass to a higher grade after taking stock of the marks and grades awarded to the student at the end of the school year.

Formative assessment of a student’s progress and development takes place on an ongoing basis. Teachers are free to select and use particular tools and methods used for the purposes of formative assessment, within the framework laid down in the school’s local curriculum. Recitation (oral delivery of lessons), when a student should, in the classroom, recite memorized minor units of the curricular material in response to the teacher’s questions, is the most popular tool of formative assessment. Since this tool is quite time-consuming to use, especially in higher grades, short essays and answers in writing by all student simultaneously in a relatively short period of time (5 to 20 minutes), as well as the checking of written homework are widely used within the framework of specialist education. The final essay that students have to write at the end of each major unit of the curricular material, the written report on the material of several lessons and, rarely, the internal exam taken in alternative schools are the tools of summative assessment. In lower grades, summative assessment frequently uses various symbols (red dot or tale figures), too. Teachers aim at assessing each student’s achievement in each subject at least once a month. They use students’ report cards to register marks and comments for the information of parents. A parent should certify by his/her signature that he/she has written and acknowledged the school assessment or mark. Some schools also operate electronic report card systems, ensuring, subject to stringent data protection regulations, that only the student concerned and his/her parents can have access to the assessment results relating to him/her.

In alternative schools and in the context of certain school development projects, the tool of student’s portfolio assessment is already used but to an insignificant extent.


Progression of Pupils

A student may pass to a higher school grade if he/she successfully fulfils prescribed study requirements by the end of the school year, i.e. he/she has scored, on the basis of his/her mid-year study achievement or performance at the supplementary examination, at least a pass (2) mark in each subject. A student who has failed a subject at the end of the school year is allowed to sit a repeat exam before the start of the next school year. His/her progress to the next grade is conditioned on the successful exam passing (scoring at least a pass mark). The student whose total justified and unjustified absence from school exceeds the maximum permissible period specified by law should repeat the grade unless he/she is allowed by the teaching staff to take a supplementary examination.

When a student has been exempted by the head master from evaluation and assessment on account of his/her individual faculties or stage of development he/she does and completes grade 1 as a preparatory year in the identical class as the rest of students. Such students are prepared to fulfil school requirements through playful activities during the preparatory grade. The preparatory grade may also be organised within the scope of the morning day care activities. Students may only attend a preparatory year for one academic year and only in case they have commenced their studies at the age of seven at the latest.

For a student attending primary grade 1, the head master has the right to permit, after seeking an expert opinion, progression adapted to the student’s special circumstances and faculties. The permission may cover one or more subjects, or all of them, and may apply by the end of grade 4 at the latest. Participation in individual activities on at least two occasions per week has to be permitted for students in grades 1 to 4 if it is necessitated by their effective preparation and they should not be denied admission to daycare activities or classes of all-day education. The school should provide parents appropriate information on such opportunities. A student may only be ordered to repeat a year at the end of grade 1 in the only case where he/she could not fulfil the relevant study requirements due to his/her justified and unjustified absence from school.

A student may be permitted to repeat the grade even if he/she could pass to a higher grade. The head master decides whether to give permission at the request of the student or, for a minor, his/her parents. In grades 1 to 4, a student has to be permitted to repeat the grade if so requested by his/her parents. Under the Act students are also permitted to complete, subject to the head master’s approval, several grades in one school year. However, in such cases, they should take a supplementary examination at the end of the school year. This solution is typical of private students and highly gifted ones.

As has already been mentioned in the introductory chapter, students may also take part in compulsory education in secondary schools with 8-year education starting from grade 5 or with 6-year education. A student or his/her parents have the right to decide on the application for admission to such secondary educational institutions. Admission is subject to the sole decision of the head master, taking into consideration of the student’s study achievements only, or his/her study achievements and the result of the written examination based on centrally issued, standard competence-based worksheets, or his/her study achievements, the result of the written examination based on centrally issued, standard competence-based worksheets and the result of an oral hearing.


Certificates

Students receive a certificate on the fulfilment of the study requirements of each year. Certificates are official documents. Certificates should be issued in Hungarian or in two languages, i.e. in Hungarian and in the language of a national or ethnic minority or in another foreign language if the language of instruction is partly or wholly the language of the national or ethnic minority or that foreign language. The printed certificates contain the coat of arms of the Republic of Hungary. Only printed certificates and forms necessary for the issue of certificates approved by the minister responsible for education can be applied in school. The permission of the minister responsible for education is needed to manufacture and distribute printed certificates and forms serving as the basis of issuing certificates. There is no reason for any school to deny the issue of a certificate.

The certificate should contain the student’s name, identification data, grade, the designation of subjects, the marks in both written and numerical forms, a section for remarks, an additional sheet for written assessment, the date of issue, signatures of the head master and class head (class head), as well as the seal of the school. The clauses set out by law should be appended to the certificate. Sheets of the certificate registering study achievements for each school year are authenticated by appending head teacher’s and head master’s signatures and with the seal of the school. The completion of elementary studies is recorded in the certificate by a formal phrase of the head master, and authenticated with his signature and the seal of the school.