This page was last modified on 6 December 2016, at 12:43.

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary


Assessment of students

The assessment of students has significantly developed in the past decade. The scope of the various assessments of students, which in many cases serve educational management purposes, has expanded, assessments have become more professional and reputable among teachers, and also important innovations have occurred in this field.

The Public Education Act introduced in 2011 stipulates that the performance of students has to be regularly evaluated by using marks and students and parents have to be regularly informed about marks.

Diagnostic assessment is primarily used for new entrant classes and for grouping students (e.g. in Foreign Language or Mathematics classes) into ability classes, for the purpose of increasing efficiency by not having large knowledge differences within a group. Both formative and summative assessment is used regularly in schools. In terms of function, however, these forms of assessment are not always separated from each other and sometimes the difference between the two becomes blurred especially for children and parents, but sometimes for teachers as well.

Marks and grades used to evaluate student performance are as follows: excellent (5), good (4), satisfactory (3), pass (2) and fail (1). Behaviour and effort/diligence are evaluated on a four-grade scale: exemplary (5), good (4), could do better (3) and poor (2).  

Marks are recorded in the attendance book of the class, which includes students’ basic data, and are also recorded in each student’s report book, which primarily aims to provide information to parents. Most schools use electronic attendance and report books, where teachers, parents and students can access their relevant profiles (under strict data protection conditions). Teachers tend to evaluate all students at least once in every one or two months in every subject, and inform parents about the marks earned through an electronic reporting system. Parents acknowledge school marks/assessment. In case of formative assessment, in addition to giving marks, some schools also provide percentage and a written description of student performance.The assessment tools/methods applied are described in the pedagogical programme of the school.

The most frequently used tools of formative assessment are short oral tests, short written tests (taking 5-20 minutes) and the checking of written homework. The most widely used tools of summative assessment are end of topic tests (after completing a larger thematic unit) and mid-term and end-term assessment. These are usually made on the basis of the marks earned during formative and summative assessments throughout the school year. Additional, not so commonly used tools of summative assessment include the written summary of the topic of several lessons; written project works / oral presentations on individual observations, experiments and data collection; and as a tool used more rarely and especially in private schools, the annual or more frequent internal examinations. A small part of general secondary schools conduct internal examinations called “small secondary school leaving examination” at the end of grade 10 and “mock secondary school leaving examination” at the end of grade 11, the latter simulating the real examination to be taken at the end of grade 12.  

 

National Assessment of Basic Competences

The first National Assessment of Basic Competences (NABC) was carried out in 2001 with the primary aim of assessing the effectiveness of schools. The assessment system has developed in the past few years in a way that now it informs students, parents and teachers about students’ individual development. The NABC is an annual assessment system, which covers almost all students in grades 6, 8 and 10, and which has been implemented since 2007 under the same order of procedure, as prescribed by the Public Education Act and a Ministerial Decree. During the assessment students complete mathematics and reading comprehension tests at the end of every school year, in the last week of May, in four 45-minute sessions. Tests do not assess the extent to which students have acquired the knowledge prescribed by the syllabus of the given grade but rather the extent to which students can apply their knowledge acquired at school to solve real life problems.

Assessment results are used for preparing a National Report as well as reports at the level of the operator, school, school site and the individual student. The Student Report presents the student’s achievement on the test, results broken down to tasks, and results compared to the national, school and class average. As a unique assessment ID is required to access the Student Report, such reports may only be viewed by the students, their parents and the school. The National Assessment of Basic Competences has already contributed to the improvement of the diagnostic assessment culture of schools: the teaching staff of schools tend to analyse the results of their school together and a large number of teachers have received further training in this field.

Student progress

The general rules applying to the progress of students are laid out in the 2011 Act on Public Education. Accordingly, the teachers evaluate the students’ performance during the school year regularly, by way of marks or grades. At the end of each term and school year the evaluation is expressed in the form of grades in every subject worked out on the basis of the interim grades assigned during the year and on the basis of the student’s activity throughout the term/year. From among the two grades the one assigned at the end of the first term is for information but the year-end grade is a prerequisite for progressing to the next grade. Both the student and the parent have to be informed of the end-of-term and end-of-year grades. At the end of the first term this information is provided by way of the report booklet, while at the end of the year it is provided by way of the annual school report booklet. The annual school report booklet is a public document.

A basic principle (that is set out in the Act on Public Education) is that the mark and grade cannot be applied as a disciplinary instrument, they must reflect the student’s actual knowledge and performance. Schools and teachers increasingly comply with this criterion. The grades - like the marks in the course of the school year - appear in the form of a scale of five grades (excellent - 5, good - 4, medium - 3, satisfactory (pass) - 2 and unsatisfactory (fail) - 1.), while behaviour and diligence is rated on a scale of four grades: exemplary - 5, good - 4, varying - 3 and poor/negligent - 2. The marks are assigned by the teacher and he or she makes a proposal for the year-end grade and the decision is made by the teaching staff. Decision on the progress of the student to the next grade is also made by the teaching staff on the basis of their review of the year-end grades.

A student may progress to the next grade of the school if he managed to fulfil the prescribed study requirements by the end of the school year, i.e. if - on the basis of his or her performance and marks during the year or his/her performance in the school’s examination - he or she received at least a satisfactory (2) grade. Decision on the necessity of repeating a given grade is to be made at the end of the school year by the teaching staff. Pursuant to law parents can also request the retake of the school year. The grade may have to be repeated if the student was assigned an unsatisfactory (1) grade in any subject. Before the beginning of the next school year however, the student may take a re-take examination, theoretically irrespective of the number of subject in need of improvement, but in practice in one, or two or rarely in three subjects. A re-take examination may be taken and passed either at the school or before an independent examination board. The latter must be requested at the school but the organisation of such an examination is a task for the Educational Authority which appoints independent teachers specialising in the subject concerned. This solution is rarely opted for, typically only in cases where there is some conflict or distrust between the student or the parents and the teacher concerned.

Repeating a grade cannot be denied from the student until the end of the mandatory schooling age. If the student achieves a minimum of a satisfactory (2) grade in every subject in the re-take examination, he or she may progress to the next grade. A student must repeat the grade on a mandatory basis also when the total number of classes missed with or without justification exceeds the statutory maximum number and the teaching staff did not permit the student to take the grading examination.

As long as the student has not passed the mandatory schooling age grade repetition cannot entail expelling the student from the school. Indeed, if the student repeats the same grade for the second or third etc. time, the school must provide individual activity for the student to enable him or her to catch up. The general secondary school may terminate the relationship with the student if the student has failed for the third time to complete the given grade (by which time he or she has probably reached the end of the mandatory schooling age).

Students can relatively freely switch between general secondary schools, which often takes place after the family’s moving to a different location though it may also take place for other reasons, at the parent’s request. A student is entitled to change programmes even without repeating the grade, if this is allowed by the differences between the contents of the two programmes. This is always decided by the principal of the recipient school and he/she determines the subjects, if any, in which the student to be taken over has to pass an equivalency examination.

Where the student is suspected to be lacking in some particular skill - e.g. dyslexia, dyscalculia – various capabilities of the student may - with the parents’ approval - be examined by a panel designated for this purpose. Increasingly frequently the decision taken by the panel results in exemption from the obligation to fulfil the minimum requirements of certain subjects (e.g. foreign language or mathematics). This does not obstruct the student’s progress to the next grade. Students are also permitted by law to complete more than one grades - with the principal’s permit - in a given school year but in such cases he or she must pass a grading examination at the end of the year. This takes place in the case of particularly talented private students but it occurs very rarely.

 

Certificates

At the end of each grade the students are provided with year-end school reports (certificates). The grades entered in the year-end school reports are based on the student’s performance during the school year, his or her marks received in the course of the formative and the summative assessments/evaluations and on rare occasions on the ratings achieved in the voluntary examinations organised by the school. Accordingly, the year-end school report is not preceded by a specific examination. Private students are an exception to this rule (they account for less than 1 percent of all students) who account for their knowledge attained by the end of the year in the form of a grading examination, along with students obliged to pass a re-take examination in a given subject having received an unsatisfactory (1) grade that subject or those who missed more classes than the prescribed maximum limit (30 % of all classes in a given subject).  

The year-end school report is a public document the contents of which must be accepted until the contrary is proven. The year-end school report must be made out in Hungarian or, where teaching takes place in two languages, it must be made out in both languages. The school cannot refuse to issue a year-end school report on the basis of any excuse. The year-end school report contains the student’s name, identification data, grade, the titles of the subjects, the grade in a textual and in a numerical form, the field of comments, the date, the signature of the principal and the form master as well as the seal of the school.

General secondary school studies are closed by the so-called secondary school leaving examination. The secondary school leaving examination, as a closing examination, examines general knowledge/education. This is a state examination that is to be organised in accordance with the standardised requirements across all secondary schools in Hungary.

At least in five subjects must be taken in the secondary school leaving examination. These include:

1.) Hungarian language and literature

2.) History

3.) Mathematics

4.) Foreign language – for students participating in minority education it is mother tongue language and literature

5. One subject of the student’s choice


The examination is comprised of several parts: oral, written and - in the case of certain subjects - a practical part. The examination periods are in May-June and for the students, who failed the school leaving exam at the end of the school year, the retake period is September-October.

Students who have successfully completed their studies in the 12th grade, i.e. who have received at least satisfactory marks in all subjects, may be admitted to the secondary school leaving examination. The school report also includes a statement that the student performed the obligatory 50 hours of community service. According to the Act on Public Education adopted in December 2011, this provision takes into force in 2016.

In certain subjects a so-called ‘secondary school leaving examination brought forward’ or early secondary school leaving examination, may also be taken. This option was available for most subjects, but from 2014 only for foreign language and IT. Taking early secondary school leaving examination in the 11th grade is highly popular among students, some take this early exam at the end of the 10 grade, and some as early as the end of the school year when that particular subject is completed. The examinations are taken in the language in which the given subject was taught - in Hungarian or in the language of the national or ethnic minority or in other foreign language. The examinee may see his or her own written test - in accordance with the rules laid down in the examination regulation - and may attach comments on its evaluation.

The secondary school leaving examination certificate is a public document the production and distribution of which requires the permit of the minister of education. The certificates must be made out in Hungarian or, if teaching was provided in another language as well, they must be made out in two languages. In addition to the examinee’s data the secondary school leaving examination certificate contains the titles and levels of the examination subjects, the language of the examination and the result of the examination in terms of grade in textual and percentage form as well as the authenticating signatures and clauses. The secondary school leaving examination certificate is issued by the examination board. The successful passing of the secondary school leaving examination is a prerequisite for the obtaining of the certificate. The student or the parents are entitled to submit their appeal against the decision of the examination board to the government office within 5 days (referring to a violation of a piece of legislation). The government office has three days available to make a decision on the appeal.

If the student has obtained the secondary school leaving examination certificate, this document provides access to admission to higher education institutions, vocational training, taking up employment and working, irrespective of the concrete examination results (grades). The secondary school leaving examination certificate entitles the student to enrol in a higher education institution, if other requirements defined by that institution (such as advanced level secondary school leaving examination) are also met.