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Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

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Overview Hungary

Contents

Hungary:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Hungary:Historical Development

Hungary:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Hungary:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Hungary:Political and Economic Situation

Hungary:Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Hungary:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Hungary:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Hungary:Organisation of Private Education

Hungary:National Qualifications Framework

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Hungary:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Hungary:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Hungary:Funding in Education

Hungary:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Hungary:Higher Education Funding

Hungary:Adult Education and Training Funding

Hungary:Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Hungary:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Hungary:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Organisation of General Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in General Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Vocational Secondary Education

Hungary:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Hungary:Higher Education

Hungary:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Hungary:First Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Bachelor

Hungary:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Hungary:Second Cycle Programmes

Hungary:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Hungary:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Hungary:Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Distribution of Responsibilities

Hungary:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Hungary:Main Providers

Hungary:Main Types of Provision

Hungary:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Hungary:Teachers and Education Staff

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Management and Other Education Staff

Hungary:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Hungary:Management Staff for Higher Education

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Hungary:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Quality Assurance

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Hungary:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Educational Support and Guidance

Hungary:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Hungary:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Hungary:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Hungary:Mobility and Internationalisation

Hungary:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Mobility in Higher Education

Hungary:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Hungary:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Hungary:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Hungary:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Hungary:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Hungary:National Reforms in School Education

Hungary:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Hungary:National Reforms in Higher Education

Hungary:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Hungary:European Perspective

Hungary:Legislation

Hungary:Institutions

Hungary:Bibliography

Hungary:Glossary

Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Authority of first instance of public education institutions and performance of operational tasks in public education

Public education institutions so far operated by municipalities are now directly operated by the state from 1 January 2013. As of 1 January 2017, Klebelsberg Institution Maintenance Centre will take over the operation of the public education institutions (schools) so far operated by municipalities. The institution maintenance centre performs its duties of maintaining state insitutions through 58 deconcentrated school maintenance unit centres.

The school maintenance units maintain the state-maintained basic and upper-secondary education institutions.

The school maintenance units perform the maintenance and operation tasks relating to state-maintained institutionsThe school maintenance units have no competence over institutions operated by nationality governments or by the church or private entities and over kindergartens still operated by municipalities.

The school maintenance centre:

  • establishes, reorganises or closes down institutions or changes their scope of activity,
  • sets the public education institution budget and controls its management,
  • sets fees for activities subject to a fee,
  • determines the number of classes that can be organised in a given school year,
  • monitors the lawful operation and performance of public education institutions,
  • makes a proposal on the appointment of the head of the institution, and exercises the employer’s rights with regard to the head of the institution,
  • monitors the pedagogical programme of the institution,
  • organises secondary school leaving examination and entrance examination,
  • appoints and dismisses teachers, decides about promotion and participation in in-service training,
  • organises the substitution system for teachers.

In case of private schools, the private operator sets the rules of determining the amount of tuition fee or students’ contribution to the costs of education, the criteria for awarding scholarship, etc. It also appoints the head of the institution under its operation, and exercises employer’s rights over him/her.

Institutional autonomy in public education

The school head is responsible for the professional and lawful operation of the institution, the preparation of the pedagogical programme and other documents regulating operation, the implementation of prescribed activities and data supply, supporting the decision-making of the teaching staff and ensuring the implementation of their decisions, and for sufficient cooperation with the school board, the employee representative organisations, student unions, and parent organisations. The school head is responsible for creating a safe and healthy environment for the institution.

Pursuant to the new provisions, the school head lost his/her financial management competences (it was taken over by the school maintenance centres). The head does not have any employer’s rights, the district authority determines the number of teachers and it also arranges for the substitution of teachers. The head retains his/her power to organise the working time of teachers.

The operation of schools (or other educational institutions, e.g. kindergartens, dormitories etc.) is regulated by documents obligatory to draft. The most important regulatory documents guiding day to day operation are the Organisational and Operational Regulations, the House Rules. The documents regulating the operation have to be made public. The main document of the professional performance of the institution is, in the case of kindergartens, the educational programme, and, in the case of schools, the pedagogical programme, which contains the local curriculum. The responsibility of preparing the documents obligatory to draft lies with the school head.

 Institutional autonomy in higher education

 The Senate defines the training and research tasks of the HEI, is in charge of adopting an institutional development plan, adopts the strategy of research, development, and innovation, and determines the most significant rules and regulations and the overall budget.

 The senate approves the training programme of the institution, the rules of operation, the doctorate rules, and its budget within the frameworks specified by the maintenance authority. Furthermore, the senate decides on the establishment of the scientific committee, on the election of its members and president, on the order of instructor, researcher and leader tenders, on the granting of titles and honours, the establishment or termination of doctorate schools, on launching doctorate training, as well as on initiating the launching or termination of trainings. The president of the senate is the rector.

The rector is the top head and representative of the HEI, who proceeds and decides in all issues that are not assigned to the competence of other persons or bodies by legal regulations, the operational rules, or the collective agreement. In state-maintained HEIs, the rector is responsible for the proper operation of the HEI in accordance with its basic activity, and within the frameworks of this, he exercises the employer’s rights over its instructors, researchers and teachers.

 The financial manager, called chancellor in HEIs is responsible for the preparation of financial measures and proposals. The chancellor is responsible for the economic, financial, controlling, internal audit, accounting, labour, legal, administration, IT activities of the HEI, for the assets management of the institution, including technical, facility utilisation, operation, logistics, service, procurement and public procurement issues, controls operation in these areas, and exercises the owner’s rights in the companies and economic entities operating with the participation of the institutions.

 In state-maintained HEIs, consistorium operates for the establishment of the institution’s strategic decisions, and for the professional support and control of the financial activity, The consistorium has five members, three members being delegated by the minister. The major organisations of the financial and economic environment of the HEI, the concerned HEI and the students union of the HEI make recommendations to the minister concerning the members. The rector and the chancellor are ex officio members of the consistorium.