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Higher Education

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This section outlines the general higher education policy objectives, and the main features of how higher education is organised including the roles of different types of existing institutions and programmes. The main provisions of relevant higher education laws (decrees, decisions, at ministerial/regional level) are also explained, with links to relevant legislation.The structure of the academic year is included. 

If you would like country specific information on this topic, please click on the appropriate flag at the bottom of the page.

Types of Higher Education Institutions

A brief description of the various categories of institutions is provided, indicating the nature of the differentiation made e.g. Differentiation may be on the basis of:
• Research mission
• The types of programmes (academic vs. professional)
• Publicly funded vs. privately funded


Where a university and non-university sector is distinguished, this is made clear.

First Cycle Programmes 

The first cycle programmes in each system is introduced, outlining the different types of first cycle programmes that exist.

Bachelor:

Branches of Study explaining the normal structure and length of the programmes (in ECTS or equivalent) and the various stages and levels into which programmes may be divided.

Admission Requirements e.g. entrance exams. Information is also provided on the body/authority responsible for regulating the size of the student populations. Alternative access routes are also explained such as those for mature students or under-represented groups.

Curriculum explaining how the curriculum is developed and who is responsible for this.

Teaching Methods e.g.
• Formal lecture
• Small group activities
• Use of new technologies
• Whether teaching is structured by discipline, module or Is done in a multi-disciplinary way
• Whether or not teachers are free to choose their own methods and whether teaching materials are used in the teaching and learning process

Progression of Students including the maximum number of times student can attempt to pass exams in a given subject and whether or not students are obliged to complete their studies within a prescribed period that may be extended.

Employability including:
• In-company placements
• End-of-course work for potential employers
• Study visits
• Career guidance services

Student Assessment distinguishing between:
• Continuous evaluation
• Formative evaluation
• Summative evaluation

Indications are also given as to what level evaluation is organised at e.g. faculty, department and and the kind of assessment (oral/written, essays etc.).

Certification e.g.
• The authority responsible
• Definition of content
• Methods

Short Cycle Higher Education:

Branches of Study explaining the normal structure and length of the programmes (in ECTS or equivalent) and the various stages and levels into which programmes may be divided.

Admission Requirements e.g. entrance exams. Information is also provided on the body/authority responsible for regulating the size of the student populations. Alternative access routes are also explained such as those for mature students or under-represented groups.

Curriculum explaining how the curriculum is developed and who is responsible for this.

Teaching Methods e.g.
• Formal lecture
• Small group activities
• Use of new technologies
• Whether teaching is structured by discipline, module or Is done in a multi-disciplinary way
• Whether or not teachers are free to choose their own methods and whether teaching materials are used in the teaching and learning process

Progression of Students including the maximum number of times student can attempt to pass exams in a given subject and whether or not students are obliged to complete their studies within a prescribed period that may be extended.

Employability including:
• In-company placements
• End-of-course work for potential employers
• Study visits
• Career guidance services

Student Assessment distinguishing between:
• Continuous evaluation
• Formative evaluation
• Summative evaluation

Indications are also given as to what level evaluation is organised at e.g. faculty, department and the kind of assessment (oral/written, essays etc.).

Certification e.g.
• The authority responsible
• Definition of content
• Methods

Organisational Variation which describes less common variations in short-cycle tertiary education (distance learning, open universities etc.).

Second Cycle Programmes

Branches of Study explaining the normal structure and length of the programmes (in ECTS or equivalent) and the various stages and levels into which programmes may be divided.

Admission Requirements e.g. entrance exams. Information is also provided on the body/authority responsible for regulating the size of the student populations. Alternative access routes are also explained such as those for mature students or under-represented groups.

Curriculum explaining how the curriculum is developed and who is responsible for this.

Teaching Methods e.g.
• Formal lecture
• Small group activities
• Use of new technologies
• Whether teaching is structured by discipline, module or Is done in a multi-disciplinary way
• Whether or not teachers are free to choose their own methods and whether teaching materials are used in the teaching and learning process

Progression of Students including the maximum number of times student can attempt to pass exams in a given subject and whether or not students are obliged to complete their studies within a prescribed period that may be extended.

Employability including:
• In-company placements
• End-of-course work for potential employers
• Study visits
• Career guidance services

Student Assessment distinguishing between:
• Continuous evaluation
• Formative evaluation
• Summative evaluation

Indications are also given as to what level evaluation is organised at e.g. faculty, department and the kind of assessment (oral/written, essays etc.).

Certification e.g.
• The authority responsible
• Definition of content
• Methods

Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

This section describes variation in degree programmes (e.g. degree programmes where the length is unusually long, and/or programmes that begin with a first cycle entry but end in a second cycle degree etc.

Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Organisation of Doctoral Studies including an overview of the main branches of study and the normal length of each branch in years. Information is also provided on the organisation of structured doctoral studies.

Admission Requirements including the body responsible for regulating the size of the student populations and the body responsible for selecting students for institutions. Any specific provisions for prospective mature students are mentioned.

Status of Doctoral Students/Candidates i.e. whether they are considered to be student or employees.

Supervision Arrangements e.g.:
• Multiple supervision arrangements
• Continuous professional skills development of academic staff
• Performance of supervisors
• Information on tutoring responsibilities

Employability including:
• In-company placements
• End-of-course work for potential employers
• Study visits
• Career guidance services

Assessment distinguishing between:
• Continuous evaluation
• Formative evaluation
• Summative evaluation

Due consideration is also given to the original research contribution made by the doctoral candidate.

Certification e.g.
• The authority responsible
• Definition of content
• Methods

Organisational Variation which describes less common variations in short-cycle tertiary education (distance learning, open universities etc.).

 

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