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Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

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Overview Greece

Contents

Greece:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Greece:Historical Development

Greece:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Greece:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Greece:Political and Economic Situation

Greece:Organisation and Governance

Greece:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Greece:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Greece:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Greece:Organisation of Private Education

Greece:National Qualifications Framework

Greece:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Greece:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Greece:Funding in Education

Greece:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Greece:Higher Education Funding

Greece:Adult Education and Training Funding

Greece:Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Primary Education

Greece:Organisation of Primary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Higher Education

Greece:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Greece:First Cycle Programmes

Greece:Bachelor

Greece:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Greece:Second Cycle Programmes

Greece:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Greece:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Greece:Adult Education and Training

Greece:Distribution of Responsibilities

Greece:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Greece:Main Providers

Greece:Main Types of Provision

Greece:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Greece:Teachers and Education Staff

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Management and Other Education Staff

Greece:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Greece:Management Staff for Higher Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Quality Assurance

Greece:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

Greece:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Greece:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Greece:Mobility and Internationalisation

Greece:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

Greece:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Greece:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Greece:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:National Reforms in School Education

Greece:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Greece:National Reforms in Higher Education

Greece:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Greece:European Perspective

Greece:Legislation

Greece:Institutions

Greece:Glossary

Curriculum, Subjects, Number of Hours

Pursuant to Law 4186/2013, the curricula of Vocational Upper Secondary Schools (EPAL) are drawn up by the Educational Policy Institute (IEP) and include the following:

  • Explicitly stated learning outcomes sought after and being analyzed in knowledge, skills and competences, per subject, sector and specialization.
  • Teaching material being prepared in line with the learning outcomes sought after for each subject. The teaching material of laboratory education courses is accompanied by an annex, describing the laboratory equipment required for their implementation.
  • Instruction guidelines including the teaching techniques, the teaching methods and the appropriate supervisory means.

The curricula in question are prepared in accordance with the guidelines of the European Credit System for Vocational Education and Training - ECVET.

In order to formulate curricula for each sector and specialization, the related occupational profiles are taken into consideration, if there are any, certified by the National Organization for the Certification of Qualifications & Vocational Guidance (EOPPEP) specialty.

Timetables and curricula are reassessed, evaluated and, if deemed necessary, renewed.  From school year 2016-2017, Day and Evening EPALs will be running the new programme of studies for grades A and B, as this was specified by Law 4386/2016. 

Grade A

The learning programme delivered in EPAL Grade A includes:

  • General Education Subjects offered to all students
  • Track Subjects and
  • Elective Subjects.

Taught Times for General Education subjects, Track Subjects and Elective Subjects administered in Day and Evening EPAL grade A, are specified by Ministerial Decision Φ2/88938/01-06-2016. 

                                                              TAUGHT TIMES FOR DAY EPAL GRADE A SUBJECTS

                                                                             I. GENERAL EDUCATION SUBJECTS

 No

  Subjects

  Times

  1

  Modern Greek 

     4

  2

  Mathematics*1

  Algebra

     3

  Geometry

     1

  3

  Natural Sciences*2

  Physics

     2

  Chemistry

     1

  Biology

     1

  4

  Political Education - (breaks down into the subjects of Economy, Political Institutions and Sociology and Principles of Law)

     2

  5

  History

     1

  6

  Religion

     1

  7

  Foreign Language (English)

     2

  8

  Physical Education

     2

 9

   Informatics*3

     2

        TOTAL

22 hours

                                                                                        ΙΙ. TRACK SUBJECTS

   No

    Subjects

      Times

    1

    Research Project in Technology*3

         2

    2

    Career Guidance in Schools - Health & Safety in the workplace

         2

   3

    Creative Activities Zone

         3

                  TOTAL

    7 hours

                                                                                      III. ELECTIVE SUBJECTS*4

   No

    Subjects

      Times

     1

    Health Education

          2

     2

    Introduction to Line and Architectural Drawing

          2

      3

    Introduction to Electrical & Electronic Engineering

          2

      4

    Introduction to Mechanical Engineering

          2

      5

    Introduction to Economics

          2

      6

    Introduction to Composition 

          2

      7

     Agriculture and sustainable development

          2

      8

     Marine Art

          2

                    TOTAL

    6 hours

*1 Mathematics: Subject is split into: a) Algebra and b) Geometry

*2  Natural Sciences Subject is split into: a) Physics, b) Chemistry and c) Biology

*3 When the number of students per classroom is more than sixteen (16), classroom is divided into two groups. Informatics and Research Project in Technology are taught alternately for two (2) hours per week.

*4 Students have to choose three (3) among eight (8) available subjects, depending on the departments operating within the EPAL.

Grade B

According to the provisions entering into force from school year 2016-2017 and under Law 4186/2013 as replaced by Law 4386/2016, Sectors of Studies will be set up for Vocational Lyceum grade B; in grade C these will be subdivided into separate tracks.

According to the new programme of studies and under Ministerial Decision Φ20/82041/Δ4/20-05-2016, nine (9) departments are set up for Vocational Lyceum grade B:

  •    Sector of Agriculture, Food and Environment
  •    Sector of Economics and Management
  •    Sector of Construction Works, Built Environment and Architectural Design 
  •    Sector of Applied Arts
  •    Sector of Electrical & Electronic Engineering and Automation
  •    Sector of Mechanical Engineering
  •    Sector of Maritime Occupations*1.
  •    Sector of Informatics
  •    Sector of Health - Welfare - Well-being

As a result, the learning programme delivered in EPAL Grade B includes:

  • General Education Subjects offered to all students
  • Technological-Vocational subjects per Sector.

Taught Times for General Education and Technological-Vocational subjects per Sector administered in Day and Evening EPAL grade B, are specified by Ministerial Decision Φ2/88938/01-06-2016, as amended by Ministerial Decision Φ2/127074/Δ4/01-08-2016.

                                              TAUGHT TIMES FOR DAY EPAL GRADE B GENERAL EDUCATION SUBJECTS

  No

               Subjects

     Times

   1

        Modern Greek Language

          3

   2

       Mathematics*2

         Algebra

          2

   3

         Geometry

          1

   4

    Natural Sciences*3

         Physics

          1

   5

         Chemistry

          1

   6

    Religion

         1

   7

   Foreign Language (English)

         1

   8

   Introduction to the Basics of Computer Science

         1

   9

   Physical Education

         1

             TOTAL

   12 HOURS

*1 Taught Times for the Technological-Vocational Subjects administered in EPAL grade B of the Sector of Maritime Occupations, are specified by Joint Ministerial Decision Φ2/113700/Δ4/11-07-2016 issued by the Minister of Education, Research and Religious Affairs and the Minister of Shipping & Island Policy.

*2 Mathematics: Subject is split into: a) Algebra and b) Geometry

*3 Natural Sciences Subject is split into: a) Physics and b) Chemistry

Grade C

The learning programme delivered in Day EPAL grade Cis implemented in accordance with the provisions in effect prior to the passing of Law 4386/2016 and until its full enactment under Law 4186/2013.

The learning programme delivered in EPAL Grade C includes

  • General Education Subjects offered to all students as well as
  • Speciality Subjects.

             TAUGHT TIMES FOR DAY EPAL GRADE C GENERAL EDUCATION SUBJECTS     

                             SUBJECTS

        TIMES

   Greek Language

   Modern Greek Language

              2

   Literature

              1

   Mathematics

   Algebra

              2

   Geometry

              1

  Science

   Physics

              2

   Chemistry

              1

  Introduction to the Basics of Computer Science

              1

  Foreign Language (English)

              1

  Physical Education

              1

Similarly, Taught Times for Evening EPAL General Education grade C and D subjects are specified by Ministerial Decision100634/Γ2/30-06-2014, as rectified and in effect; Taught Times for Day EPAL grade C and Evening EPAL grade C and D speciality subjects are specified by Ministerial Decision Φ2/88070/Δ4/04-06-201, as amended, supplemented and in effect.

Please see below a list of specialities last offered for school year 2016-2017 for Day EPAL grade C and Evening EPAL grade C and D, under Law 4186/2013, as amended and supplemented by Laws 4203/2013 and 4327/2015:

CLASSIFICATION PER TRACK GROUPS AND SECTOR

These are the Track Groups and their respective Departments and Vocational Lyceum specialities for school year 2016-2017 only:

Technological Applications Track Group

  • Sector of Informatics
  • Informatics Applications Technician
  • Computer and Computer Network Technicians
  • Software Technician
  • Sector of Mechanical Engineering
  • Mechanical Constructions Technician
  • Thermal Facility Engineer and Petroleum Technology & Natural Gas Engineer
  • Refrigeration, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Technician
  • Motor Mechanic
  • Aircraft Assembly Mechanic
  • Sector of Electrical & Electronic Engineering and Automation
  • Electronic and Computer Systems and Facilities Technicians
  • Electrical Systems, Facilities and Networks Technicians
  • Automation Technician
  • Network and Telecommunications Technician
  • Sector of Construction Works
  • Construction and Geoinformatics Architect
  • Sector of Environment and Natural Resources
  • Management and Recycling Technician
  • Air Quality Monitoring and Pollution-control Facilities Technician

 Economics & Management Track Group

  • Sector of Economics and Management
  • Economics and Management Services Officer
  • Storage and Supply Systems Officer
  • Commercial and Advertising Officer
  • Tourism Economics and Management Officer

 Agriculture, Technology, Food and Nutrition Track Group

  • Agriculture, Technology, Food and Nutrition Track Group
  • Crop Production Technician
  • Animal Husbandry Technician
  • Fishing and Aquaculture Technicians
  • Floriculture and Landscape Architecture Technicians
  • Food and Drink Technology Technician
  • Forestry and Environmental Management Technician

 Maritime Occupations Track Group

  • Sector of Ship Captains
  • Merchant Ship Captain
  • Sector of Engineers
  • Merchant Ship Engineer

 Health - Welfare and Hairdressing - Cosmetology Track Group

  • Sector of Health - Welfare
  • Nursing Assistant
  • Medical - Biology Lab Assistant
  • Nursery/Childcare Assistant
  • Physiotherapy Assistant
  • Dental Technician Assistant
  • Radiology Lab Assistant
  • Pharmacist Assistant
  • Chemical Lab and Quality Control Assistant
  • Sector of Hairdressing and Cosmetology
  • Cosmetologist
  • Hairdresser

 Applied Arts Track Group

  • Sector of Applied Arts
  • Graphic Designer
  • Interior Designer
  • Gild & Silversmith
  • Conservator-restorer
  • Mosaic and Stained Glass
  • Sector of Industrial Design
  • Fashion Design and Production
  • Furniture making - Carpentry

 

Teaching Methods and Materials

School textbooks are written based on analytical curricula and are distributed free of charge to students.

The distribution and publication of the textbooks is conducted by the Computer Technology Institute & Press “Diophantus” (ITYE), which constitutes a research and technology organization focusing on the research and the effective use of Information and Communication Technologies in the sector of education (Law 3966/2011).

At the beginning of the school year, teachers of all specialties are given special instructions covering general and specific objectives of the cognitive subjects they are about to teach; they are also given additional general and specific methodological instructions on the teaching methods of these cognitive subjects.  However, the teacher of each subject enjoys a relative autonomy as he/she is free to build the teaching method based on pupils’ capabilities; teachers are free to choose the type of homework assigned to pupils,  occasionally ‘diverging’ from the fixed framework of exercises foreseen in the school textbook.

In the structures where optional secondary vocational education is provided the application of modern pedagogical methods is sought after, depending on the subject.  The main methods applied are lecturing, demonstration, group teaching, exercises for skills development, pupils encouragement to be autonomous and engage in active participation, practice in relevant work areas, and practice in the laboratories of schools or in special School Workshop Centers.

Laboratory Centers operate in an independent administrative structure as schools and are in cooperation with the Vocational Upper Secondary Schools and the Institutes of Vocational Training of their area.  They are formed by at least two schools; while in their premises operate laboratories of different fields and expertise aiming at improving the provided laboratorial practice to the students of the schools that are included in the laboratory centers.

The School Laboratory for Physical Sciences covers the absolute necessity of physical Sciences laboratory teaching. The laboratory of the General Upper Secondary School is up-to-date, flexible and attractive and it can function both as a place for teaching and as a place for practice and activities.  After all, according to contemporary teaching concepts these two cannot be dissociated, at least not in the case of teaching Physical Sciences. The students work in groups on a specific subject, developing their innate creativity in a spirit of cooperation, while they have at their disposal up-to-date instruments that help them discover not only the environment and the laws that govern it, but also their later adjustment to contemporary life and work environment. 

Each school unit is also equipped with a School Laboratory for Information Technology and Computer Applications, the basic mission of which is to teach computer science and computer applications as defined by the study programs and the greater educational goals.  The Information Technology Lab, operates complementary to the educational process, offering a contemporary and interactive way of learning and training through the teaching of subject fields with the use of certified educational software and the Internet, the support of project based learning in the framework of the school’s activities or the European cooperation actions and the broadening of the purely teaching activities (enhanced teaching, additional teaching support etc.).

Within the context of supporting the educational community as a whole there is also the Educational Web Portal e-yliko.gr that gathers in one site educational supporting material in digital form in one site. The portal offers specific teaching proposals to the interested parties, the overall certified educational software that has been produced the last ten years by the Ministry of Education, together with supporting material for all lessons and levels of Secondary Education. This material is divided into sections and classified by lesson. It includes exercises, vocabulary, translating tools along with links to other web pages of relevant educational content. The visitor can quickly and easily search for information on seminars, events, announcements and other happenings organized by different bodies. The portal is utterly useful to the educators’ community since it is a most significant attempt at gathering all relevant information in one unified site on the Internet.

Part of the Electronic Platform of the Ministry of Education and Religion is the digital school-digital educational content which includes the textbooks in digital form, as well as rich teaching and learning materials.

From school year 2016-2017, the subject Research Project in Technology will be incorporated into the taught times schedule for EPAL grade A.

Research Project in Technology is delivered as follows: The first stage identifies students’ initial career and occupation interests as well as their preparedness for conducting research projects.  Students are then divided into groups based on their initial interests on future career and education, and choose a subject for their project/essay.  Over the course of the school year, a total of 3-4 projects shall be completed.  The precise number of projects to be conducted is specified by the teacher together with the classroom students.

Research Project in Technology aims to introduce students to research methodology and the technologies used in local production procedures and the different occupations corresponding to the existing EPAL departments and specialities.

The main learning objective is to offer to ALL students the opportunity to identify their talents and skills in a number of ways and to enhance their self-esteem through teamwork and innovation.  The subject attempts to motivate students and foster their interest in future career and study options in the track of their choice.

This is mainly achieved through supporting teachers with resources, relevant content and training courses, encouraging support among colleagues and providing feedback for informing improvements in the content and teaching practices used for this subject.  For this purpose, collaboration among different speciality teachers (depending on the subjects chosen by the student groups) is also essential.  For the same purpose, teaching resources for delivering the recommended taught activities will be available on the Vocational Education Platform of the Institute of Educational Policy.  These can be used for assessing instructional practices.  Additionally, there is an option to use content and resources from other sources, in collaboration with teachers of the respective speciality.