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Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

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Overview Greece

Contents

Greece:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Greece:Historical Development

Greece:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Greece:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Greece:Political and Economic Situation

Greece:Organisation and Governance

Greece:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Greece:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Greece:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Greece:Organisation of Private Education

Greece:National Qualifications Framework

Greece:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Greece:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Greece:Funding in Education

Greece:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Greece:Higher Education Funding

Greece:Adult Education and Training Funding

Greece:Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Primary Education

Greece:Organisation of Primary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Higher Education

Greece:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Greece:First Cycle Programmes

Greece:Bachelor

Greece:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Greece:Second Cycle Programmes

Greece:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Greece:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Greece:Adult Education and Training

Greece:Distribution of Responsibilities

Greece:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Greece:Main Providers

Greece:Main Types of Provision

Greece:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Greece:Teachers and Education Staff

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Management and Other Education Staff

Greece:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Greece:Management Staff for Higher Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Quality Assurance

Greece:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

Greece:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Greece:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Greece:Mobility and Internationalisation

Greece:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

Greece:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Greece:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Greece:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:National Reforms in School Education

Greece:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Greece:National Reforms in Higher Education

Greece:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Greece:European Perspective

Greece:Legislation

Greece:Institutions

Greece:Glossary

Steering Documents and Types of Activities

The curriculum for pre-primary education, described in the Ministerial Decision 21072β/Γ2/28-2-2003 and elaborated by the Educational Policy Institute (IEP), former Pedagogical Institute (www.pi.schools.gr/programs/depps), determines the guidelines for the design and development of activities in Language, Mathematics, Environmental Study, Creation & Expression and Information Technology.  These programmes, applied throughout the whole country, are not considered distinct teaching subjects, but guides for the implementation of activities, developmentally suitable and effective for all pre-primary school children.

Therefore, in the Pre-primary School, subjects are not distinguished into compulsory and optional ones, if one takes into account that because of this, there is no specific syllabus, as in the other structures of primary and secondary education.

These programmes aim to enhance comprehensive child development with regard to their physical, emotional, social and cognitive skills. Programmes are designed around themes that trigger the children's interest while using pedagogic practices.  Thematic and project-based learning are key components of the programmes implemented.  Emphasis is placed upon an interdisciplinary and holistic approach to knowledge as well as making use of children's curiosity and ideas for conducting the learning process.

The daily pre-primary school schedule includes a compulsory programme of activities for all children of this age group, as well as a programme of activities for non-compulsory education students.  It breaks down into school hours focused around interdisciplinary activities, free-flow corner activities and rest breaks/mealtime.  Timetable starts and finishes with a discussion on planning and assessing activities for the following day.  The daily timetable is drawn up by teaching staff together with the school's head and shall be adjusted after working closely with the school's early childhood education advisor.

New pre-primary education curricula were pilot tested during school years 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 within the action framework "New School (21st Century School) - New Curriculum".  The development of the new curricula and teacher guidelines for compulsory education (including pre-primary education) was completed during the first semester of 2015.  Full implementation of the new compulsory education (including pre-primary education) curricula is underway for all schools in the country.  Changes involve:

A) The content:

  • emphasis is given on the socio-cultural dimension of knowledge
  • the development of "basic skills" is promoted, as they are defined by the current social, economic and technological changes and developments
  • the principles of differentiated pedagogics are set
  • the role of the teacher in organising learning and teaching is underlined
  • emphasis is given on the two-way communication between the school and the family and parental involvement in children's learning
  • the "Personal and Social Development" as one of the "learning regions" of the programme is presented and developed
  • actions are proposed facilitating the transition of children from the family to pre-primary school and from pre-primary school to primary school, as part of the curriculum and not as a stand-alone programme of activities
  • the significance, the logical development and the structure of each learning area are explained and directions are given to the teacher in terms of the teaching methodology and the evaluation of learning
  • the connection of learning areas is clarified

B) The use thereof by teachers:

  • key-terms of the new programme are explained and relevant examples are given (e.g. differentiated pedagogics, basic skills, learning contexts)
  • actions-activities corresponding to specific learning objectives are proposed
  • specific methodological approaches are proposed to achieve the objectives of the learning areas.

The basic skills that the new study programme promotes are defined by the national and European strategy for education and include:

  • communication
  • creative and critical thinking
  • personal identity and autonomy
  • social skills and competences related to citizenship

Based on the New Curricula for pre-school education, learning-cognitive areas and learning objectives to which each of them should pinpoint, can be summarised as follows:

  • Personal and social development.  The main learning objectives focus on issues such as identity, self-regulation, personal strengthening, social skills and social interaction.
  • Natural Sciences.  The main learning objectives in this cognitive unit focus on issues such as the particular traits of living organisms, objects and materials (physical condition of materials, etc.), the concepts and phenomena of the natural world (weather), planet earth and space (geomorphological characteristics, day-night alternation, motion of the earth, etc.).
  • Information and Communication Technologies.  The main learning objectives of this specific earning-cognitive area are associated to the familiarisation of children with the essential characteristics of ICT (the computer as a single system, the basic functions of a computer operating system), communication, interaction and collaboration, access to information and management thereof, enhancement of the learning experience through the use of ICT, the safe use thereof and development of attitudes and skills.
  • Environment and Education for Sustainable Development.  The learning goals are associated with the issues of waste management, sun protection and water resources management.
  • Language.  The learning objectives of “Language” are associated with understanding and producing oral texts, as well as understanding and producing written texts.
  • Physical Education.  The learning objectives focus on the development of basic physical skills, the application of knowledge associated with motor concepts, the development of creative and critical thinking, the development and preservation of an appropriate level of fitness for the promotion of health and the development of self-expression and social interaction, and finally the demonstration of responsible social behavior as a result of the participation in physical activity.
  • Arts.  The content of this cognitive unit concerns visual arts, theater, music, audiovisual expression, dance and movement.  The learning objectives are designed to help children identify materials that are useful for creativity in visual arts, be familiar with and use simple techniques to create original works, recognise colors, show interest in works of art, recognise some of them, recognise and describe various forms of theatre, learn about and become familiar with the musical instruments of the class, use their voice in different ways, distinguish fundamental differences in various music genres etc. 
  • Mathematics.  The five pillars underpinning the learning objectives of Mathematics concern issues such as numbers and operations (natural numbers up to 10 and operations), space and geometry (spatial orientation, geometric shapes, transformations and visualisation), introduction to algebraic thinking (regularities and equalities), measurements (introduction to measuring length, area, volume and capacity) and stochastic mathematics (data organisation and introduction to probability).

In the New Curricula for Pre-Primary School, the concept of the traditional “literacy”, which was limited to speaking, writing and reading, is now replaced by the term “multi-literacy”.  This term describes two distinct dimensions/aspects of language today:  The first is linked to the increasing variety of important ways for meaning-making and communication.  The second aspect of language is associated with the continuous expansion of cultural and linguistic diversity.

Teaching Methods and Materials

Pre-school education teachers are supported in their work both by the guidelines described in the Pre-primary School curriculum (Ministerial Decision 21072β/Γ2/28-2-2003) and the "Teacher's guide -Educational Planning - Creative Learning Environments (2005)" offering them a basis for theoretical and methodological support and a bank of ideas with direct examples of learning activities.  To reinforce All-Day Pre-Primary School institution, a new package of educational and support material has been developed with multiple recipients (parents, pre-primary school teachers, pupils) including both printed and electronic material.  Seminars have been organised for education executives on this new educational material and new curriculum.

The entire Pre-primary School work programme promotes autonomy of children in order to learn how to co-exist, co-operate, capitalising on their knowledge and skills associated with different cognitive fields.  A teacher creates the appropriate conditions for ensuring learning incentives and prerequisites for all children in an attractive, safe, friendly and stimuli-rich environment.  In other words, the teacher provides help, co-operates, intervenes and facilitates the entire learning process.  The educational material is offered free of charge.

In accordance with the Ministerial Decision 14245/31-01-2014, the textbooks for pre-school education include 3 titles, which are addressed to all pupils of pre-school education.  Such titles have been approved for their pedagogical appropriateness and educational value and constitute additional educational material in the context of cross-cultural education in primary education school units.

Additionally, interactive applications for pre-school education are listed in digital form at the website of the Digital School (url: http://dschool.edu.gr/) of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs, which, in order to fulfil the goals of the National Curricula, use means and tools such as data reconstruction, exploration, educational games, practice exercises, open or research activities.  The afore-mentioned material is available for free and is accessible by all without exception.

The main means and tools used in Pre-Primary Schools in order to meet the objectives of National Curricula for pre-school education are:

  • images
  • data reconstructions
  • exploration
  • educational games
  • practice exercises
  • case studies
  • open activities
  • research Activities