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Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

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Overview Greece

Contents

Greece:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Greece:Historical Development

Greece:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Greece:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Greece:Political and Economic Situation

Greece:Organisation and Governance

Greece:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Greece:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Greece:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Greece:Organisation of Private Education

Greece:National Qualifications Framework

Greece:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Greece:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Greece:Funding in Education

Greece:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Greece:Higher Education Funding

Greece:Adult Education and Training Funding

Greece:Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Primary Education

Greece:Organisation of Primary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Higher Education

Greece:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Greece:First Cycle Programmes

Greece:Bachelor

Greece:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Greece:Second Cycle Programmes

Greece:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Greece:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Greece:Adult Education and Training

Greece:Distribution of Responsibilities

Greece:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Greece:Main Providers

Greece:Main Types of Provision

Greece:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Greece:Teachers and Education Staff

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Management and Other Education Staff

Greece:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Greece:Management Staff for Higher Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Quality Assurance

Greece:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

Greece:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Greece:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Greece:Mobility and Internationalisation

Greece:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

Greece:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Greece:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Greece:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:National Reforms in School Education

Greece:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Greece:National Reforms in Higher Education

Greece:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Greece:European Perspective

Greece:Legislation

Greece:Institutions

Greece:Glossary

Curriculum, Subjects, Number of Hours

The curricula and timetables of General Upper Secondary Schools have been carried out by the Pedagogical Institute.  The Pedagogical Institute has been replaced since 2011 by the Educational Policy Institute (IEP), which among other things offers consultation and makes suggestions about issues concerning secondary education study programs, school books and other teaching means.

The curricula serve as complete guides of the teaching work and include the following:

  • Explicitly stated aims for each subject, in the context of the general and grade-specific aims of education.
  • Syllabus organized in units.
  • Indicative guidelines on the method and the teaching media, per subject.

As regards Upper Secondary School curricula, the following apply:

Grade A

Pursuant to Law 4186/2013, Day General Upper Secondary School Grade A , is an exclusively general education grade with a timetable of subjects totalling thirty-five (35) hours per week.  In particular, a thirty-three (33)-hour curriculum is applied per week, with nine (9) general education subjects being common for all students plus a curriculum of two (2) hour weekly consisting of one (1) elective subject chosen among four (4) subjects.

General Upper Secondary School Grade A Timetable

In Day General Upper Secondary School Grade Α, general education subjects are as follows:

  • Greek Language, 9 teaching hours, with Ancient Greek Language and Literature, Modern Greek Language and Literature as distinct teaching subjects-fields covering 5,2 and 2 hours respectively.
  • Mathematics, 5 hours, with Algebra, and Geometry as distinct teaching subjects-fields covering 3 and 2 hours respectively.
  • Science, 6 hours, with Physics, Chemistry and Biology as distinct teaching- subjects included, each covering 2 hours.
  • History, 2 hours
  • Civic Education, 3 hours, with Economy, Civil Institutions, Law Principles and Sociology as teaching subjects
  • Religion Education, 2 hours
  • Project, 2 hours.
  • Foreign Language, 2 hours, (English, French or German).
  • Physical Education, 2 hours

In Day General Upper Secondary School Grade Α, elective subjects are as follows:

  • Information Technology Applications, 2 hours
  • Geology  and Natural Resources Management, 2 hours
  • Greek and European Civilisation, 2 hours
  • Art Education, 2 hours

Grade B

According to Law 4186/2013, the curriculum applicable to Grade B of the Day General Lyceum includes general education courses of thirty (30) teaching hours per week in total and two (2) Groups of Orientation Courses, Humanities and Science Studies, of five (5) teaching hours per week in total, where pupils are required to choose one (1).  

Timetable of Courses of General Lyceum for Grade B

The Courses of the common education program (General Education) are as follows:

  • Greek Language, 6 teaching hours, with distinct subjects-materials taught, which are Ancient Greek Language and Literature, Modern Greek Language and Literature, which are taught for 2 hours each
  • Mathematics, 5 hours, with distinct subjects-materials taught, which are Algebra and Geometry, which are taught for 3 and 2 hours respectively
  • Physical Sciences, 6 hours, with distinct subjects-materials taught, which are Physics, Chemistry and Biology, which are taught for 2 hours each
  • Introduction to the principles of Informatics, 1 hour
  • History, 2 hours
  • Philosophy, 2 hours
  • Civics, 2 hours, with teaching subjects being Economics, Political Institutions, Principles of Law and Sociology
  • Religion, 2 hours
  • Research assignment (synthetic work/project), 1 hour
  • Foreign Language, 2 hours (English, French or German)
  • Physical Education, 1 hour.

The Human Studies Orientation Courses are as follows:

  • Ancient Greek Language, 3 hours
  • Basic Principles of Social Sciences (Sociology, Economics and Political Science), 2 hours.

The Science Studies Orientation Courses are as follows:

  • Physics, 3 hours
  • Mathematics, 2 hours

Grade C

Under Law 4327/2015, Day General Unified Lyceum Grade C and Evening General Unified Lyceum Grade D are split into three Direction Groups:

  • Humanities
  • Sciences
  • Economics and Informatics

The curriculum for Day General Unified Lyceum Grade C and Evening General Unified Lyceum Grade D is split into General Education Subjects and Direction Subjects.  Taught time for each group is fifteen (15) hours per week.  Students must take subjects of their Direction Group of choice along with General Education subjects. General Lyceum Grade C students are additionally signing up for an Elective Subject, taught for two (2) hours per week.

 Timetable of Courses of Day General Lyceum in force for Grade C

SUBJECTS
C CLASS
GENERAL EDUCATION HOURS
Religion
1
Modern Greek Language 2
Modern Greek Literature 1
History
2
Mathematics and Statistics
2
Biology
2
History of the Social Sciences
1

Foreign Language (English or French or German)

2
Physical Education (folloewd by non-written test)
2
ELECTIVE SUBJECTS
Second Foreign Language (English or French or German)
2
Freehand drawing*1
2
Line drawing*1
2
History of Art
2
Introduction to Business Administration and Service Management
2
Total General EducationTaught Time
17
DIRECTION SUBJECTS*2
HUMANITIES
Ancient Greek
5
History
3
 Latin
3
Literature
2
Sociology
2

SCIENCES


Mathematics
5
Physics 3
Chemistry 3
Biology
2
Developing applictions in programming environments
2
ECONOMICS AND INFORMATICS
Mathematics 5
Principles of Economics
3
History
3
Developing applictions in programming environments
2
Sociology
2
Total Taught Time
15

*1Students who wish to prepare for the Freehand Drawing and the Line Drawing Examinations can sign up for both subjects.  One of these will be taught after completion of the weekly taught time schedule.

*2Direction Group subjects are linked with entry into higher Education Institutes and lead to specific Academic Disciplines.  In particular HEI Departements are grouped into five (5) Disciplines under Law 4327/2015:

  • Discipline 1: Hunanities, Law and Social Sciences
  • Discipline 2: Science and Technological Sciences
  • Discipline 3: Health and Life Sciences
  • Discipline 4: Education Sciences
  • Discipline 5: Economics and Informatics

Teaching Methods and Materials

School textbooks are developed based on analytical curricula, are distribute free of charge and are globally used by all pupils of the respective grade and education level throughout Greece.

The distribution and publication of the textbooks is conducted by the Computer Technology Institute & Press “Diophantus” (ITYE), which constitutes a research and technology organization focusing on the research and the effective use of Information and Communication Technologies in the sector of education (Law 3966/2011).

In General Upper Secondary School, the application of modern teaching methods depending on the subject, and the use of traditional as well as modern teaching materials, constitute a major aim. However, teachers enjoy a relative independence since they can modify their subject’s teaching methods in ways that suit the nature of the subject they teach and students’ abilities. Therefore, students’ assignments sometimes go beyond the fixed exercise context provided in the school textbooks. In any case what is sought is an interdisciplinary and holistic approach to learning, which helps develop the pupil’s capacity for a more effective response to the problems of everyday life while at the same time it also limits the knowledge-based orientation of teaching and makes use of school time to the maximum extent possible.

Among the methodological approaches applied to the Lyceum, we cite the following:

  • Active approach to knowledge through research and discovery. It aims at helping students to think, to handle complex concepts, to investigate and to reach knowledge themselves. In other words, it mainly requires the motivation of the pupil and aims at developing critical thinking. However, in order for the process to be efficient, it requires practices which create appropriate conditions, which make "the discovery of knowledge" possible. These practices constitute processes of observation, comparison, measurement, classification, investigation, forecasts, finding time relationships, top events, solving problems, formulating inductive or deductive reasoning, brainstorming, etc.
  • Illustrations by means of using appropriate teaching aids, such as slides, videos, models, pre-made kits, by means of which the interest of pupils is triggered, their attention is focused on a specific goal and learning becomes more easy and natural. The help of a computer and appropriate dynamic simulations can be useful for the pupil in order to identify and better understand concepts and procedures.
  • Discussion-debate of the teacher with the pupils or discussion in groups. The discussion gives pupils the opportunity to think, to be puzzled, to evaluate, to conclude their opinions through the dialectical process of confrontation. The involvement of the pupil in the discussion and the active participation in it is achieved by the appropriate puzzling questions, which should be planned before teaching.
  • Direct form of teaching-Narration. Man has the ability, by means of reason, to communicate his knowledge and ideas. This enables the teacher to be directly involved in the learning process at the time of teaching, when they consider that the indirect forms of teaching are not appropriate for the occasion.
  • Teamwork forms of teaching. The dynamic the micro-group of pupils develops may well be used either as a context of collective data processing, or as a context of support towards individual learning. Teamwork teaching styles are recommended for the preparation of work plans (projects), which are provided for the organization of interdisciplinary activities.

These teaching strategies can be applied, where appropriate, singly or in combination, depending on the module, the nature of the course, the pupils' needs and the circumstances of the school or the means available to the teacher.

According to Law 4186/2013, Projects become a distinct section of the Study Program in the Lyceuym. These projects are done in groups, which open up new horizons of search, while at the same time a shift is attempted from the intensely competitive and individualistic manner of student work to that of group effort and cooperation. The Projects are obligatory for all students and they are evaluated independently, while their mark is evaluated equally to the marks of the other lessons. The students choose the subject of their Project depending on their particular preferences and inclinations from the disciplines of «Humanitarian and Social Sciences», «Art and Culture», «Mathematics, Physical Sciences and Technology», «Environment and Sustainable Development», or from fields that combine some of the aforementioned disciplines. All research projects involve the use of technology and the internet, on which they are uploaded after their completion, so that the education community may have access to them. 

The School Laboratory for Physical Sciences (SEFE) covers the absolute necessity of physical Sciences laboratory teaching. The laboratory of the General Upper Secondary School is up-to-date, flexible and attractive and it can function both as a place for teaching and as a place for practice and activities. After all, according to contemporary teaching concepts, these two cannot be dissociated, at least not in the case of teaching Physical Sciences. The students work in groups on a specific subject, developing their innate creativity in a spirit of cooperation, while they have at their disposal up-to-date instruments that help them discover not only the environment and the laws that govern it, but also their later adjustment to contemporary life and work environment. 

Parallel to the Laboratory for Physical Sciences, each school unit is also equipped with a School Laboratory for Information Technology and Computer Applications, the basic mission of which is to teach computer science and computer applications as defined by the study programs and the greater educational goals. The information Technology Lab, operates complementary to the educational process, offering a contemporary and interactive way of learning and training through the teaching of subject fields with the use of certified educational software and the Internet, the support of project based learning in the framework of the school’s activities or the European cooperation actions and the broadening of the purely teaching activities (enhanced teaching, additional teaching support etc.). The School Laboratory for Information Technology and Computer Applications is equipped with:

  • Computer equipment (hardware and software), peripheral devices, networking equipment (hubs, switches modems, routers), projectors etc.
  • Passive equipment (network and electrical installation).
  • Software in CDs, DVDs, discs, software manuals, software licenses, as well as other complementary material (guides and manuals).
  • Books and publications, as well as document files relevant to Laboratories for Physical Sciences and the lessons of information technology.
  • Expendable material, instructional material (stationary, projection screen material) and also furniture (bookshelves, lockers, whiteboard).

For the Information Technology Laboratory’s technical equipment support for all Secondary Education Schools, Administrative Units and the partial support of the Pan-Hellenic School Network, Computer Science and New Technology Centers have been constituted and are operating in the Directorates of Secondary Education.

Within the context of supporting the educational community as a whole the Educational Web Portal e-yliko.gr is also in operation, gathering in one site educational supporting material in digital form. The portal offers specific teaching proposals to the interested parties, the overall certified educational software that has been produced these last ten years by the Ministry of Education, together with supporting material for all lessons and levels of Secondary Education. This material is divided into sections and classified by lesson. It includes exercises, vocabulary, translating tools along with links to other web pages of relevant educational content. The visitor can quickly and easily search for information on seminars, events, announcements and other happenings organized by different bodies. The portal is utterly useful to the educators’ community since it is a most significant attempt at gathering all relevant information in one unified site on the Internet.

Part of the Electronic Platform of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs is the digital school-digital educational content (http://dschool.edu.gr) which includes the textbooks in digital form, as well as rich teaching and learning materials. It is noted that this website is a two-way channel for communication and learning support, as teachers and schools are able to post relevant educational material.