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Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Greece

Contents

Greece:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Greece:Historical Development

Greece:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Greece:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Greece:Political and Economic Situation

Greece:Organisation and Governance

Greece:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Greece:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Greece:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Greece:Organisation of Private Education

Greece:National Qualifications Framework

Greece:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Greece:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Greece:Funding in Education

Greece:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Greece:Higher Education Funding

Greece:Adult Education and Training Funding

Greece:Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Primary Education

Greece:Organisation of Primary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Higher Education

Greece:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Greece:First Cycle Programmes

Greece:Bachelor

Greece:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Greece:Second Cycle Programmes

Greece:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Greece:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Greece:Adult Education and Training

Greece:Distribution of Responsibilities

Greece:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Greece:Main Providers

Greece:Main Types of Provision

Greece:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Greece:Teachers and Education Staff

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Management and Other Education Staff

Greece:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Greece:Management Staff for Higher Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Quality Assurance

Greece:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

Greece:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Greece:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Greece:Mobility and Internationalisation

Greece:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

Greece:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Greece:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Greece:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:National Reforms in School Education

Greece:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Greece:National Reforms in Higher Education

Greece:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Greece:European Perspective

Greece:Legislation

Greece:Institutions

Greece:Glossary

Definition of the Target Group(s) 

A series of compensatory programmes and measures has been introduced and is currently implemented towards supporting vulnerable and less-advantaged student groups, for ensuring equal access to education.  The target groups that receive such interventions are:

  • students with learning difficulties that do not fall into the category of students with disabilities and special educational needs
  • or students integrated into the country’s educational system without holding the required level of attainment in Greek.

These programmes aim to reduce school dropout rates, prevent and treat social exclusion and improve quality in education.  In particular, the Compensatory Educational Policy stipulated by Law 4386/2016 aims to:

  • re-integrate students into education
  • improve their performance in order to assist them with completing compulsory education
  • reduce early school dropout rates
  • increase the rates of progression to upper secondary education and, ultimately, tertiary education.

Cross-cultural Education, whose institutional framework is stipulated by Law 2413/1996, seeks to efficiently and smoothly integrate socially or culturally diverse students (e.g. foreign students, refugee students, repatriate students, Roma students and Muslim minority students in Thrace) into the general educational system.  This goal is achieved through pedagogical teaching practices applied in parallel with inclusion models that encompass suitable learning interventions.

These are the special compensatory institutions that provide educational support and services to children of immigrants, repatriates and minority children:

  • General School Learning Enhancement programmes
  • Cross-cultural Education Schools (Scholeia Diapolitismikis Ekpaidefsis)
  • Minority Education Schools (Meionotika Scholeia)
  • Targeted development programmes and measures for the education of foreign and repatriate students, Roma children and Muslim children.

Law 3879/2010 introduces the Educational Priority Zones (Zones Ekpaideftikis Proteraiotitas - ZEP), for improving learning performance in regions with low education and socio-economic indicators.  Reception Classes and Tutorial Courses(Taxeis Ypodochis kai Frontistiriaka Tmimata) running for foreign and repatriate students come under the umbrella of the same initiative.  At the same time, Remedial Teaching (Enischytiki Didaskalia) is running in Primary Schools (Dimotika Scholeia) and Compensatory Education programmes are running in Secondary Schools (Gymnasia and Lykeia) (Presidential Decree 462/1991 and Law 4386/2016).

Specific Support Measures  

Compensatory programmes administering supplementary tuition are running for poor performance students who do not attend their classes and do not actively participate in the educational process, or students who wish to improve their performance.

Remedial Teaching (Enischytiki Didaskalia) (instituted with the Presidential Decree 429/1991) in primary schools is carried out with priority for Grade A and B students that face learning deficiencies and special needs in core basic skills, such as literacy and numeracy.  The subjects taught are thus Language and Mathematics.  School teachers are responsible for setting up small classes (up to 5 students).  Remedial Teaching runs for 1-2 school hours a day and up to 6 hours a week, during or after-school hours.

Compensatory Education (Antistathmistiki Ekpaidefsi) encompasses Remedial Teaching for Gymnasium students, Additional Teaching Support to students of all types of Lyceums, additional teaching support to prisoners, as well as secondary education classes run by certified Recovery Organisations.  Remedial Teaching in Gymnasiums aims to improve student performance and reintegrate students into the educational system and assist them with completing compulsory education.  Additional Teaching Supports aspires to reduce early school dropout rates and increase chances of student progression to the upper secondary education and, ultimately, tertiary education.

Compensatory Education programmes are implemented in:

  • Compensatory Education School Centres; these may be situated in individual Gymnasiums or Lyceums or run per group of Gymnasiums or Lyceums located in the same district
  • approved secondary education recovery organisations
  • prisons supported by Second Chance School programmes
  • prisons supported by one-to-one tuition programmes.

The subjects taught, selection criteria, number of students and school hours for each school term are specified by the Minister of Education. 

Educational Priority Zones (ZEP) established under Law 3879/2010 and regulated by Ministerial Decision 131024/D1/8-8-2016, are not only regions with low indicators in educational inclusion (e.g. growth & prosperity indicator, educational indicator), but all Regional Directorates of Primary and Secondary Education that can accommodate ZEP Reception Classes (TY),Tutorial Courses (Frontistiriaka Tmimata) and Welcome Centres for the Education of Refugees.

Educational Priority Zones aim to support students, enhance Greek language competences and create a framework for tackling school drop outs, promoting inclusive education for all students without discrimination, and welcoming/educating child refugees.

Within this framework, ZEP programmes introduce (where possible) differentiated interventions in areas that determine successful performance, such as linguistic, cognitive and socio-emotional development.  Schools are sufficiently pre-pepared to introduce intitiatives regarding the operation of such programmes by designing the appropriate curriculum and applying effective alternative teaching practices.

Reception Classes (Taxeis Ypodochisand Tutorial Courses (Frontistiriaka Tmimata) aim to enhance active participation and effective learning for primary education students who do not hold the required level of attainment in Greek (Roma, foreign, repatriate, refugee and vulnerable group students) in order to integrate them into the Greek educational system.

ZEP Reception Classes I (Taxeis Ypodochis) are intended for students with a minimum or zero level of competence in the Greek language.  These students are entitled to intensive Greek language courses.  ZEP TY I Class students also join a few mainstream classes on the following subjects:

  • Physical Education
  • Art
  • Music
  • Foreign Language
  • or an extra subject determined by joint decision of the school teachers board and the school advisor.

ZEP Reception Classes II (TY) are intended for students with an average level of competence in the Greek language that may cause difficulties in mainstream class attendance.  For ZEP TY II students, language learning support (support may be provided in other subjects too) takes place in the form of parallel complementary tuition inside mainstream classes.  In any case, the programme’s tenet is students to attend most of the teaching hours in the mainstream class, so as to be fully integrated in it as soon as possible.

Attendance to Reception Classes (TY) Classes is one year only.  Nine (9) is the minimum number of students for conducting ZEP TY I and II classes.  Students who have completed ZEP TY II cannot repeat it.

ZEP Enhancement Coaching Courses (Enischytika Frontistiriaka Tmimata) are intended for Roma, foreign, repatriate, refugee and vulnerable group students, who either did not attend ZEP TY classes and face learning difficulties, or attended ZEP TY classes, but still find it difficult to attend mainstream classes. This programme provides after-school supplementary tuition services for all school grades.

ZEP Enhancement Coaching Courses are conducted with a minimum number of three (3) students and a maximum number of eight (8) students.  ZEP EFT classes run for up to ten (10) school hours a week.  Taught subjects include Modern Greek Language as well as any other subject the student needs help with.  This subject is approved by joint decision of the school teachers board and the school advisor.  Study and following-day preparation services are also provided.

Law 4415/2016 provides, for the first time, a legislative framework for regulating educational services for refugees in Greece.  In particular, the joint decision of the Minister of Finance and the Minister of Education:

  • stipulates establishment of welcome centres for the education of refugees
  • outlines the above-mentioned centres’ structure, operation and co-ordination details
  • describes the curriculum
  • summarises the criteria and procedures for hiring personnel.

ZEP Welcome Centres for Refugee Education established under the above-mentioned Ministerial Decision, aim to support the education of child refugees through:

  • teaching Greek as a second/foreign language
  • implementing learning programmes, instructional interventions and activities.

Teaching and instructional interventions in Welcome Centres are provided within a flexible framework.  Welcome Centres for the Education of Refugees will be run by the country’s Directorates of Primary Education.  These centres will be running outside normal timetable hours, between 14:00 and 18:00.  Weekly timetable will be concluded under relevant ministerial decision following proposal made by the Institute of Educational Policy (IEP).  Attendance lasts for one school year, with an option for extension or later integration into the mainstream classes of primary schools (Dimotika Scholeia).

It is worth mentioning previous initiatives that laid the foundations for all existing actions and measures pertaining to support services for children of refugees. The Scientific Committee for the Psychosocial Support of Refugee Children and their Education was launched under order by the Minister of Education, Research and Religious Affairs.  The committee was mainly responsible for:

  1. recording all educational actions carried out within Accommodation Centres, identifying actions with previous experience in similar situations, and concluding a selection of actions that will be pilot implemented during the summer in some, and gradually in all, camps.
  2. organising and supervising these actions
  3. drafting proposals on refugee children education issues and the integration of these children into the educational system for school term 2016-2017.

105 learning interventions for children (creative and pedagogical/learning activities) were recorded.  These involved:

  • sports and arts activities
  • actions engaging children in new technologies
  • courses teaching Greek as a foreign language, for children and teenagers of all ages
  • English language courses and less often, maths courses
  • learning the mother tongue as a prerequisite for studying a second language (Greek) in a pre-primary education framework.

Recording pre-school, school and post-school age children is required for gradually integrating them into the educational system and identifying educational, human resources and infrastructure needs.  Data presenting probability figures on refugee children resettlement to another country or long-term stay in Greece are also required.  This can be achieved by working closely with the High Commissioner, universities and research centres.  Activities shall be taking place inside and outside accommodation centres.

This is one of the first actions launched on a small scale: 45 children of various nationalities based on the Eleonas Acommodation Centre attended English language courses (mainly) conducted by teachers working for Hill Memorial School.  Lessons took place in a public school, (four) 4 evenings a week, for two (2) months.

Cross-cultural Education aims to build relationships among different cultural communities in order to lift inequalities and erase social exclusion (Law 4415/2016). Cross-cultural Education aim is:

  • the enrolment of chidren from different cultural backgrounds together with native children
  • the enhancement of the democratic dimension of school operation on the basis of respect for democratic values and children rights and
  • the implementation of measures that promote inclusive education and social inclusion for immigrant children, in accordance with the value of equality and with respect for safeguarding the children’s own cultural identity.

Cross-cultural Schools (Scholeia Diapolitismikis Ekpaidefsis) (Law 2413/1996) operate for foreign, repatriate and refugee pupils. They are established in areas where dense population of foreign, repatriate or Roma student population is observed.  They use the same curricula used in public schools, adjusted accordingly in order to meet the special needs of these student categories.  Cross-cultural Schools are thus administering curricula which include supplementary or alternative subjects and run for smaller classes for fewer hours every week. There is a particular emphasis upon learning the Greek language.  Currently, there are twenty five (25) Cross-cultural Schools operating in seven prefectures in Greece.  Thirteen (13) of these are primary education schools and twelve (12) are secondary education schools.  Please note that native children are attending these schools as well.

As part of efforts to tackle the refugee crisis and reform the structures in education for increasing educational inclusion without social exclusion and with respect for cultural diversity, Cross-cultural Schools will be gradually converted (Law 4415/2016) into Experimental Cross-cultural Education Schools.  Decision released by the Minister of Education, Research and Religious Affairs makes provision for targeted teaching practices and a framework for producing educational content/materials written in the languages of the main immigrant communities, in order to facilitate instruction and achieve intercultural education goals.

Likewise, provision is made for launching informal education programmes, such as “Summer Schools” and existing “Summer Camps”. Experimental Cross-cultural Education Schools are pursuing collaborations with Greek Universities and implement experimental educational programmes pertaining to cross-cultural education and social inclusion regardless of race or cultural background.

Minority Schools (Meionotika Scholeia) are operating in Thrace for the resident Muslim community (Pomaks, Turks and Muslim Roma).  According to data provided by the 'myschool' management system of the Ministry of Education (October 2016), there are 144 minority schools operating in Greece.  140 are primary education schools and 4 are minority education Gymnasiums encompassing Lyceum Grades as well.  The Minority Schools curriculum is bilingual, both in the Greek and the Turkish language.  In line with the Treaty of Lausanne (1923) these schools are operating in accordance with legislative regulations and prescriptive decisions issued within the framework of bilateral education agreements and the respective laws for general education as well as minority education.  

Additionally, there is provision for Primary and Secondary School programmes, such as the ‘Education of Roma children’, ‘Education of foreign and repatriate students’, ‘Education of the Muslim Minority Children in Thrace’ programmes, once administered by the 'Education and Lifelong Learning' Operational Programme (National Strategic Reference Framework 2007-2013).  Likewise, the "Inclusion and education of Muslim children" programme which runs under the Partnership Agreement for the Development Framework (PA) 2014-2020, aims to achieve the following objectives:

  • the smooth integration of Muslim children into education and their academic progression
  • tackling Muslim children school dropouts, promoting regular school attendance and improving their learning performance
  • fostering appreciation in Muslim children of the important role of education in their lives
  • removing stereotypes and bias against Muslim children, with a view to lifting them out of social and educational exclusion
  • promoting Muslim children’s social inclusion through promoting development of their social and cultural literacy.