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Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

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Overview Greece

Contents

Greece:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Greece:Historical Development

Greece:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Greece:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Greece:Political and Economic Situation

Greece:Organisation and Governance

Greece:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Greece:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Greece:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Greece:Organisation of Private Education

Greece:National Qualifications Framework

Greece:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Greece:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Greece:Funding in Education

Greece:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Greece:Higher Education Funding

Greece:Adult Education and Training Funding

Greece:Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Primary Education

Greece:Organisation of Primary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Higher Education

Greece:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Greece:First Cycle Programmes

Greece:Bachelor

Greece:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Greece:Second Cycle Programmes

Greece:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Greece:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Greece:Adult Education and Training

Greece:Distribution of Responsibilities

Greece:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Greece:Main Providers

Greece:Main Types of Provision

Greece:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Greece:Teachers and Education Staff

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Management and Other Education Staff

Greece:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Greece:Management Staff for Higher Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Quality Assurance

Greece:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

Greece:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Greece:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Greece:Mobility and Internationalisation

Greece:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

Greece:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Greece:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Greece:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:National Reforms in School Education

Greece:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Greece:National Reforms in Higher Education

Greece:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Greece:European Perspective

Greece:Legislation

Greece:Institutions

Greece:Glossary

Main characteristics

Secondary Education in Greece is divided in two cycles: compulsory Secondary Education and non-compulsory Secondary Education.

Compulsory Secondary Education is offered at the lower secondary school (Gymnasio), day and evening, and is of three-year duration.

Secondary non-compulsory Education is distinguished in a) General Education offered in upper secondary schools (Lykeia), day of three-year attendance and evening of four-year attendance, respectively and b) Vocational Education offered by Vocational Upper Secondary Schools (Lykeia), also of three and four year attendance respectively.

Vocational Upper Secondary Schools (EPAL), in addition to the Secondary studies cycle offer a Post- Secondary study cycle, the «Apprenticeship Class». Attendance in apprenticeship class  is optional; eligible for enrollment are EPAL school leaving certificate and secondary cycle studies degree holders.

Post-secondary non Tertiary Education is offered by the Vocational Training Institutes (IEK) operating in the non-formal education framework and leading to the acquisition of nationally recognized certificates.

Colleges also operate in the Post-Secondary non-Tertiary Education framework providing non-formal post secondary education and training. Colleges constitute private bodies awarding degrees, titles, attestations, studies certificates or any other certificate which can be recognized as professionally equivalent to higher education degrees awarded by the Greek, formal education system.

National policy

The National and Social Dialogue for Education was conducted as part of procedures carried out for the development of a National Plan for Education, introducing radical changes at all levels. Subjects discussed included the National Plan for Education, reforms in Compulsory Education, Teacher Training, Digital Education, moving from Secondary to Higher Education, the link between Education and Research, remapping Higher Education, Technical and Vocational Education, and Education Economics.

Educational Priority Zones (ZEP) have been set up for the promotion of equal opportunities for all children.  The programme coordinates positive actions and funds schools in areas that face educational difficulties due to geographical, social or/and other reasons. Along with this programme, Law 4415/2016 has passed for the establishment of welcome facilities for the education of refugees.  Joint Ministerial Decision stipulates that the management, coordination and the learning programme as well as the selection criteria and the recruitment process for the staff that will be operating these centres, fall under the responsibility of the Minister of Finance and the Minister of Education, Research and Religious Affairs.

A plan is elaborated to pave the way for all schools without exceptions to digital era, as a response to the need to adjust to digital cosmogony. A powerful network of infrastructures is created in the service of Greek pupils, enabling thus all pupils, even in the most remote areas, to enjoy equal opportunities and the same means enjoyed by children all around Europe.

In the Framework of Post-secondary education the National Organization for the Certification of Qualifications and Vocational Guidance (EOPPEP) undergoes changes acquiring a new broadened role to be promoted into a new official accreditation body.  EOPPEP is responsible for the accreditation of education and training providers’ inflow and outflow such as the Vocational Training Institutes. 

The National Qualifications Framework is established to broadly view learning and focus on the outcomes of learning activities, being distributed in three general categories: knowledge, skills and capabilities.

General Targets

In accordance with Law 1566/1985, the purpose of the General Compulsory Secondary Education offered in lower secondary education is to promote, within the spirit of the broader scope of education, multifaceted development of pupils depending on their age-related capabilities and the corresponding requirements of life.
In particular, lower secondary school (Gymnasio) helps pupils to:

  • Broaden their system of values (moral, humanitarian and other values), in order to adapt their behavior to its requirements; Guide their emotional world towards creative goals and humanitarian actions.
  • Complete and combine knowledge acquisition with the corresponding social concerns, in order to successfully deal with different situations and seek for solutions to the problems of life with responsibility, amid a climate of creative dialogue and collective effort.
  • Cultivate their linguistic expression, formulating their thoughts clearly and correctly, both orally and in writing.
  • Develop their body for functional improvement and cultivate their motor disposition and capabilities.
  • Distinguish the different forms of art and develop an aesthetic criterion which is useful for their own artistic expression.
  • Realize their capabilities, disposition, skills and interests, acquire knowledge of various professions and pursue their further improvement in the context of cultural, social and economic life, in order to evolve in harmony as individuals and future employees, fully aware of the equal contribution of spiritual and manual work to social progress and development.

Pursuant to Law 4186/2013 , General non-Compulsory Education offered in General Upper Secondary School (Lykeio), day and evening,  constitutes a secondary education unit providing general education and gradual in-depth understanding and specialization in several cognitive fields. It aims at:

  • Providing general high-level education which contributes to all students’ balanced cognitive, emotional, mental and physical development.
  • Enhancing critical thinking, initiative, creativity, and abilities.
  • Promoting national, religious and cultural inheritance but also preparing the youth to join the European civil society.
  • Imbuing respect for human rights, diversity and cultural differences in a multicultural context.
  • Strengthening the values of freedom, democracy, collegiality, and solidarity and raising active citizenship awareness.
  • Ensuring balance in school life, thus enabling students to combine knowledge with leisure time, creativity and to participate in developing joint projects within the educational community they belong to.
  • Developing knowledge application and problem solving skills.
  • Cultivating each individual’s ability for critical thinking and developing skills for utilizing new information technologies and communication.
  • Cultivating skills that facilitate students’ access to the labor market.

Under Law 4186/2013, the objectives of Vocational Education services provided by Vocational Lyceums (EPAL) (Day and Evening) can be summarised as follows:

  • Providing general high-level education which contributes to students’ cognitive, emotional, mental and physical development of students.
  • Enhancing students’ critical thinking, initiative, creativity, and competences.
  • Promoting national, religious and cultural inheritance but also preparing the youth to join the European civil society.
  • Imbuing respect for human rights, diversity and cultural differences in a multicultural context
  • Strengthening the values of freedom, democracy, collegiality, and solidarity and raising active citizenship awareness.
  • Ensuring balance in school life, thus enabling students to combine knowledge with leisure time, creativity and to participate in developing joint projects within the educational community they belong to.
  • Cultivating basic skills which are necessary for personality development and social inclusion.
  • Providing integrated vocational competences and skills that facilitate students’ access to the labor market.
  • Strengthening the ability to keep abreast with developments in the employment sector as well as the ability to receive and assimilate new technological and vocational knowledge, skills and competences in Lifelong Learning.
  • Enabling career advancement due to studies completed at a higher educational level.
  • Developing actions for quality assurance in technical-vocational education.

Under Law 4186/2013, Vocational Training Institutes (IEK), provide initial vocational education to graduates of secondary education.