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Greece:Political and Economic Situation

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Overview Greece

Contents

Greece:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Greece:Historical Development

Greece:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Greece:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Greece:Political and Economic Situation

Greece:Organisation and Governance

Greece:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Greece:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Greece:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Greece:Organisation of Private Education

Greece:National Qualifications Framework

Greece:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Greece:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Greece:Funding in Education

Greece:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Greece:Higher Education Funding

Greece:Adult Education and Training Funding

Greece:Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Primary Education

Greece:Organisation of Primary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Higher Education

Greece:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Greece:First Cycle Programmes

Greece:Bachelor

Greece:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Greece:Second Cycle Programmes

Greece:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Greece:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Greece:Adult Education and Training

Greece:Distribution of Responsibilities

Greece:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Greece:Main Providers

Greece:Main Types of Provision

Greece:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Greece:Teachers and Education Staff

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Management and Other Education Staff

Greece:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Greece:Management Staff for Higher Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Quality Assurance

Greece:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

Greece:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Greece:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Greece:Mobility and Internationalisation

Greece:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

Greece:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Greece:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Greece:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:National Reforms in School Education

Greece:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Greece:National Reforms in Higher Education

Greece:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Greece:European Perspective

Greece:Legislation

Greece:Institutions

Greece:Glossary

 

Political Situation

Greece is a parliamentary constitutional republic, with the Prime Minister as head of the government and a multi-party system.  The legislative power is vested in the Greek Parliament.  The judiciary branch is independent of the executive and the legislative branches.

Greece applies the New Architecture of Local Authorities and Decentralised Administration – "Kallikratis" Programme (2011).  "Kallikratis" re-formed the administrative division of Greece and re-defined the boundaries of self-government units, the method of election of competent bodies and their powers.

Alexis Tsipras is the Prime Minister of the Hellenic Republic.  Tsipras led "SYRIZA" to victory in the Greek parliamentary election in September 2015.  The government is supported by the political party "Independent Greeks" (ANEL).

Economic Situation

Problems relating to poverty, social exclusion and economic inequality have always been present in Greece even before the beginning of the economic crisis, when Greek economy was achieving high growth rates for over a long period of time.

Since late 2009 - early 2010, due to both international and domestic factors, Greece confronted serious economic hardships.  The country faced the second largest budget deficit and the second highest sovereign debt in the European Union.

In May 2010 Greece signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the European Union (EU) and the European Central Bank (ECB) in order to receive assistance for reducing its debt.

This crisis is hugely responsible for causing the debasement of Greek society.  Income deductions and cuts have disturbed social prosperity by pushing large sections of the population into poverty.

The reperscussions by this acute crisis over the last years are not only fiscal; austerity has reshaped Greek society itself.  It would be no exaggeration to say that there is not a single aspect in the country’s social setting that has not been affected.

As a result, education in Greece has also been deeply affected by this crisis at all levels (funding, institutions and organisations, structure, teaching practices and attitudes, public and private character of education etc.).

Investment and Expenditute

The following table presents investment and expenditure data regarding education.

Expenditure on education as % of GDP

In current prices


2000 2005 2012 2013 2014

Total expenditure

- private

- public

6,208

1,831

4,376

9,753

2,823

6,930

10,349

2,897

7,453

9,397

2,638

6,759

9,567

2,726

6,841

Expenditure on education 1,462 1,598 987 949 907

Total of expenditure on education

(consumption and investments)

7,670 11,352 11,336 10,346 10,474
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 141,247 199,242 191,204 180,389 177,559
 % of Expenditure on Education within GDP 5.43% 5.70% 5.93% 5.74% 5.90%

Source: ELSTAT 2016

Education and training services in Greece have been profoundly affected by lower public expenditure due to fiscal consolidation measures.  Expenditure in education as a share of GDP is one of the lowest in the EU.  The ratio of general government expenditure to GDP remained fixed during this period of time, but considering the 25% cumulative GDP decrease, expenditure in education presented a decrease at the same ratio.

Educational Attainment Level

The following figure presents adult population attainment levels for years 2000, 2005 and 2015.

Educational Attainment Level

2000 2005 2015
Population 18 years and over
8,393,359 8,948,252 8,906,024
ISCED 0 774,738 645,158 391,583
ISCED 1 2,916,054 2,713,965 2,152,403
ISCED 2 787,995 866,225 826,724
ISCED 3 2,362,678 2,717,542 2,943,339
ISCED 4 436,657 548,827 595,370
ISCED 5 1,106,361 1,433,789 1,956,829
ISCED 6 8,876 22,746 39,776

Source: Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT), Population and Labour Market Statistics Division, 2016