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Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Greece

Contents

Greece:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Greece:Historical Development

Greece:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Greece:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Greece:Political and Economic Situation

Greece:Organisation and Governance

Greece:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Greece:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Greece:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Greece:Organisation of Private Education

Greece:National Qualifications Framework

Greece:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Greece:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Greece:Funding in Education

Greece:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Greece:Higher Education Funding

Greece:Adult Education and Training Funding

Greece:Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Primary Education

Greece:Organisation of Primary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Higher Education

Greece:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Greece:First Cycle Programmes

Greece:Bachelor

Greece:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Greece:Second Cycle Programmes

Greece:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Greece:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Greece:Adult Education and Training

Greece:Distribution of Responsibilities

Greece:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Greece:Main Providers

Greece:Main Types of Provision

Greece:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Greece:Teachers and Education Staff

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Management and Other Education Staff

Greece:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Greece:Management Staff for Higher Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Quality Assurance

Greece:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

Greece:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Greece:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Greece:Mobility and Internationalisation

Greece:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

Greece:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Greece:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Greece:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:National Reforms in School Education

Greece:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Greece:National Reforms in Higher Education

Greece:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Greece:European Perspective

Greece:Legislation

Greece:Institutions

Greece:Glossary

European, Global and Intercultural Dimension in Curriculum Development

The International and European dimension in the National Curriculum is reflected in its general principles and aims, the individual objectives of certain subjects and the school books.  The Institute of Educational Policy (IEP) is responsible for the National Curriculum design and development.

Tha national curricula aim to foster, at all levels, students’ understanding in matters of cultural and religious diversity, gender equality, peaceful co-existence, multi-cultural societies and the refugee community.  

The current Cross-thematic Curriculum Framework for Compulsory Education (Diathematikon Programma) is fostering "citizenship consciousness among European citizens while encouraging them to safeguard their national identity and cultural awareness".  Amongst others, the general principles and objectives of compulsory education include:

  • Reinforcing cultural and linguistic identity within a multi-cultural social setting.
  • Raising awareness on issues pertaining to human rights, world peace and safeguarding human dignity.
  • Fostering awareness on the necessity to protect natural environments and adopt eco-friendly behaviour and practices.

Within the "Flexible Zone for Cross Thematic and Creative Activities" Primary-School (Dimotiko Scholeio) framework and the "Experiental Activities" and "Research Project (teamwork project)" Upper-Secondary School (Lykeio) framework, teachers receive support by means of teaching resources in order to introduce subjects pertaining to European identity, multi-culturalism, globalisation and environmental protection.  The European and international dimension is also promoted through induction courses and in-service continuing training programmes for teachers, carried out by the Institute of Educational Policy.

The primary education curriculum encompasses the international and European dimensions through the subjects of Modern Greek Language (taught in all six Grades), Social and Political Studies (Grades 5 and 6) and Foreign Language (Grades 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6).  These subjects’ objective is to foster awareness in matters pertaining to cultural and religious diversity, gender equality, peaceful co-existence, multicultural societies and economic refugees.  School books used for studying Modern Greek Language include Balkan and global literature passages reflecting cultural diversity themes. Environmental issues are extensively discussed in the Natural Sciences books.  Additionally, a second foreign language, French or German, is taught for two hours every week in Grades 5 and 6 in Primary Schools.

Lower secondary education (Gymnasio) students are engaged in European and international themes through the subjects of History, Literature, Social and Political Studies as well as Foreign Languages whose teaching includes references to the relevant foreign culture, promoting thus intercultural knowledge and understanding.  In particular, Gymnasium curricula place emphasis upon Greek history, which is taught in all three grades as part of wider European and global history.  Modern Greek Language includes a foreign literature chapter.  Social and Political Studies, taught in Grade C, refers to European and international themes in the chapters titled ‘Civilisation’ and ‘Social Groups’ while a large part of the lesson plan discusses the subject ‘The Individual, The State, International Organisations and the European Union’.

New curricula that have been introduced and implemented in non-compulsory secondary education, integrate the European and international dimensions through general education subjects taught in both types of Upper Secondary Schools (General and Vocational).  General education subjects in General Lyceums engage students in European culture themes in order to familiarise them with the history and formation of the European identity.  More specifically: 

  • Religious Education: one of the general objectives mentioned in the subject's teaching programme is to provide information on major world religions.
  • Ancient Greek Language and Literature: one of the general subject objectives is to highlight the 'European dimension' of antiquity, i.e. the achievements that played an instrumental role in the creation of the European civilisation, but also the role and contribution of other people and civilisations in these achievements.
  • Modern Greek Language and Literature: the subject’s main objective is to engage students in literary works of our national and global heritage, consistent with humanitarian values and spiritual ideals. This is accomplished by introducing students to Modern Greek, European and global literature. Teaching themes include Greek works and foreign works translated into Modern Greek. 
  • History: as part of the wider objective to foster historical thinking skills, students are invited to learn global history and examine its links with Greek history.  Students are also invited to familiarise themselves with the complexities of the modern world and cultural diversity, and explore and appreciate intercultural relations between civilisations and their cultural contributions.
  • Political Education includes the subjects of Economics, Political Institutions and Sociology and Principles of Law: students are invited to gain knowledge on social, political and economic matters, understand and experience the interface Economy-Politics-Law-Sociology, learn about the fundamental institutions that relate to the structure and governance of the state, and develop critical thinking skills in order to actively participate in the local, national, European and global social, political and economic setting as free and responsible citizens.
  • Philosophy: the objective of this subject is to engage students in the fundamental principles of philosophy and its terminology, and the tools used by important philosophers worldwide in order to answer questions and resolve human concerns.

With regard to Orientation Group Subjects, these are the links with the European and international dimensions:

  • Basic principles of Social Sciences (Humanities Orientation Group, General Lyceum Grade B): students are invited to comprehend all the social, economic and political concepts and categories that will facilitate their understanding of the social, economic and political structure of the country in which they reside and live.
  • Latin (Humanities Orientation Group, General Lyceum Grade B): through studying, understanding and translating Latin language texts, students become familiar with Roman literature works.
  • Principles of Economic Science (Economic-Political-Social Orientation Group Studies – General Lyceum Grade ): the objective of this subject is for students to understand the basic principles concerning Economic Science and use its tools, but also learn more about its international dimension through studying International Economic Relations.
  • Social and Political Sciences (Economic-Political-Social Orientation Group Studies – General Lyceum Grade C).

General education subjects taught in Vocational Lyceums are also reflecting the European dimension, as it is the case for General Lyceums.

Moreover, internationalisation and student and teacher mobility are also supported through specific actions.  New IT equipment (internet connection, interactive writing boards, web portals and digital learning resources), school self-assessment and accredited foreign language learning are expected to erase barriers and encourage mobility and initiatives for foreign school collaborations.

Incoming child refugee flows into the country have led to a new reality in the field of education in Greece.  In order to tackle the issue of their education, the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs has initiated  the formation of the Committee for the Support of Refugee Children (CSRC) as well as Scientific Committees to assist the work of the committee.

The Committee is responsible for:

  1. Recording all educational actions carried out within Accommodation Centres, identifying actions with previous experience in similar situations, and concluding a selection of actions that will be pilot implemented during the summer in some, and gradually in all, camps.
  2. Organising and supervising these actions.
  3. Drafting proposals on child refugee education issues and the integration of these children into the educational system for school term 2016-2017.

Law 4415/2016 provides a framework for issues concerning the interaction and creative blending of the cultural, historical and social Greek feautures with those of the global, regional and domestic environment of the host countries.  This Law regulates issues concerning:

  • (a) the support of activities pertaining to the field of Greek Education Abroad with a view to "informing improvements in the quality of its services in order to meet the needs of Greek students living abroad and persons of Greek origin who wish to become familiar with the Greek language and Greek culture" (Article 1),
  • (b) cross-cultural education, designed in such a way as to contribute towards "the formation of relationships among different communities for lifting inequalities and social exclusion" (Article 20), and
  • (c) the institutional framework for refugee education, by making clear that issues relating to the establishment of refugee welcome centres, management, operation, co-ordination, learning programmes, appointment procedures and funding, are regulated by decisions issued by the Ministry of Education, Research, and Religious Affairs (Article 38).

According to the Committee’s propositions, the Ministry of Education designed an action plan whose implementation started in September 2016.  This includes:

  • (a) the psychosocial support of children and their families,
  • (b) the formation of necessary infrastructure in refugee accommodation centres and local schools,
  • (c) the learning programme that will be administered in these welcome classes, and
  • (d) the hiring and training of the personnel required.

Partnerships and Networks

Considering that there is a large number of Greeks who live abroad, and aiming towards retaining strong links with this community, Greece, through the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs is drawing and implementing education policies for diffusing the Greek language in all countries that are hosting Greek diaspora communities.  The main objective of this policy is to retain and diffuse the Greek language and culture abroad, but also establish a communication channel for the infiltration and diffusion of European and international history and culture in Greece.  Through this channel Greece has the opportunity to become familiar with and receive influences from the European and international environment.

For safeguarding and promoting Greek education abroad, the Directorate for Diaspora Education and Intercultural Education is responsible for drafting and implementing the country’s educational policy abroad.  To this end, Greek teachers are posted abroad in order to provide teaching services to Diaspora Greeks.

The following figure presents data pertaining to the posting of Greek teachers abroad.

CONTINENT EDUCATION UNITS TEACHERS  STUDENTS
AMERICA 91 142 7,937
ASIA 8 14 505
AFRICA 50 80 723
EUROPE 251 738 15,817
OCEANIA 47 23 7,889
TOTAL 447 997 32,781

Additionally, the Directorate for International Education Relations sends books, dictionaries and other learning resources to all-level education institutions that are based abroad and offer Greek language courses.  It also represents the Ministry in international language forums and other education expos.

Moreover, tests are administered in centres throughout the world for certifying Greek language proficiency and awarding the Certificate of Attainment in Greek (CAG).  The Centre for the Greek Language (CGL) has been assigned the exclusive responsibility of administering the examination. 

The country and its heritage are also promoted in Greek-studies departments based in foreign universities.  The General Secretariat for Greeks Abroad website displays a list of diaspora programmes running in countries in five (5) continents. 

Under the auspices of UNESCO, Greek schools and teachers are participating in the South-Eastern Mediterranean Environmental Project (SEMEP) as well as the Associated Schools Project Network (ASPnet).  Both of these programmes are part of the Global Action Programme on Education for Sustainable Development.

SEMEP, a Greek initiative, deals with technological, economic, historical, social and cultural issues as well as issues on peace, human rights etc. This project combines interdisciplinary teaching with holistic learning while aiming towards linking the natural and social environment with the cultural values of the South-Eastern Mediterranean people, an important cross-cultural link that has been facilitating development in different cultures for thousands of years.

The ASPnet-Associated Schools Project Network, together with UNESCO, aims to promote international collaborations and peace through education and education’s human, cultural and international dimensions.  The institutes-members of this network (Pre-primary Schools, Primary Schools, Gymnasiums, Lyceums, Vocational Lyceums) are working for achieving the Sustainable Development Objectives with a main focus on objective 4, which discusses education.  Schools-members of the ASPnet are encouraged to carry out interdisciplinary experimental projects, for one or more of the main case studies that relate to a wide range of interconnected individual subjects: ASPnet and the priorities of the United Nations, Education for Sustainable Development, Peace and Human Rights, Intercultural learning and leading programmes such as "Global Cultural Heritage" and "Intangible Cultural Heritage".  Within the framework of the World Climate Summit, Greek ASPnet was selected to participate in an experimental programme on Climate Change, based on the whole-school approach. 

Finally, Law 3376/2005 launched the foundation of the School of European Education.  The School of European Education opened in Heraklion, Crete, and began its operation in school year 2005-2006.  The school aims to meet the educational needs of the children of European Union officers and staff, in particular the ones who work for the European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA) which is based in Heraklion. Greek students residing in Heraklion are also eligible for enrolment. The school is providing multilingual education services with a European approach.