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Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

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Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

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Greece:Funding in Education

Greece:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Greece:Higher Education Funding

Greece:Adult Education and Training Funding

Greece:Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Primary Education

Greece:Organisation of Primary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Higher Education

Greece:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Greece:First Cycle Programmes

Greece:Bachelor

Greece:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Greece:Second Cycle Programmes

Greece:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Greece:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Greece:Adult Education and Training

Greece:Distribution of Responsibilities

Greece:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Greece:Main Providers

Greece:Main Types of Provision

Greece:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Greece:Teachers and Education Staff

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Management and Other Education Staff

Greece:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Greece:Management Staff for Higher Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Quality Assurance

Greece:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

Greece:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Greece:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Greece:Mobility and Internationalisation

Greece:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

Greece:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Greece:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Greece:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:National Reforms in School Education

Greece:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Greece:National Reforms in Higher Education

Greece:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Greece:European Perspective

Greece:Legislation

Greece:Institutions

Greece:Glossary

Types of Institutions

The General non-Compulsory Education is offered in Upper Secondary Schools (Lykeia).  Attendance lasts for three years and includes Grades Α, Β, and C.

Upper Secondary Schools offering training and preparation for a specific vocational orientation, without pupils lagging behind in general education, are Music Schools, Art Schools and Ecclesiastical Schools.  In addition, Upper Secondary Schools operate either applying experimental curricula, such as Model Schools and Experimental Schools, or they are addressed to pupils with specific educational needs, such as Evening Schools, Cross-cultural Schools, Minority Schools, Schools of Special Needs Education and the School of European Education.  

In this context, the types of institutions that provide General non-Compulsory Secondary Education and award equivalent degrees are the following:

Day Upper secondary Schools

Day Upper Secondary Schools constitute the main provider of general non-compulsory secondary education as they are addressed to the majority of pupils selecting general education at this educational level.  Day General Lyceums amount to 988 out of a total of 1,036 (day and evening) throughout the country.

Evening Upper secondary Schools

Evening Upper Secondary Schools are addressed to working pupils, who wish to complete school education.  More specifically, pursuant to Law 4186/2013, adults as well as underage individuals employed in the family business, upon their parents or guardians’ solemn declaration, are eligible to enrol in Evening Upper Secondary Schools.  Evening Upper secondary School includes four (4) years and Grades Α, Β, C and D.  According to Presidential Decree 60/2006, Grades Α and Β of the Evening School correspond to Grade A of the Day School, while Grades C and D correspond to Grades Β and C of the Day School.  Evening Lyceums amount to 48 out of a total of 1,036 (day and evening) throughout the country.

The organisational variations of General Lyceums are the following:

Upper Secondary Model and Experimental Schools

Under Law 3966/2011, as amended with Law 4327/2015 currently in effect, Model and Experimental Schools (they cover all levels of education) are accommodating the introduction of new curricula and taught times, new instructional resources, textbooks and teaching practices as well as new forms of school administration.

At national level, Model and Experimental schools are administered by the Administrative Committee of Model Experimental Schools (DEPPS), designated by the Minister of Education, Research and Religious Affairs for a three-year term.  DEPPS is carrying out the implementation of educational policies regarding Model and Experimental Schools and it supports and promotes their work.  It defines a framework for research and academic activities and it spells out selection criteria in reference to entry into these particular schools on recommendation of Scientific Supervisory Committees (EPS) (school-level administrative bodies).  Teachers appointed to these schools are highly qualified and more experienced than teachers in mainstream schools.  However, both Model and Experimental school units are jointly serving the same purpose with all other schools in the country (with regard to the aims and objectives stipulated by current legislation).  There are 18 Lower Upper Secondary Model and Experimental Schools operating across the country.

Upper Secondary Music Schools

Based on the Ministerial Decision Γ2/3345/2-9-1988, the mission of Music Schools is to prepare and train young learners who wish to get involved with music professionally, without, however, falling short in general education, should they finally choose a different scientific or professional field. Graduates from Lower Secondary Music Schools enrol in Grade Α of Upper Secondary Music Schools.  Other General Lyceum graduates (successful in the graduate admission examinations) can also enrol, if there are vacancies.

Some Upper Secondary Schools do not offer all three grades given that some of them are under development.  Music Schools follow the General Education curriculum which is similar to Day Upper Secondary Schools, reinforced by Music Education subjects.  According to Ministerial Decision 137506/Γ7/26-9-2013, the overall teaching hours of General Education and Music Education for all grades of Upper Secondary School amounts to 42 hours per week.  Similarly to Lower Secondary Music Schools, good performance in music classes is a prerequisite for pupils to be able to study in Music Schools, even if their performance in General Education classes is good enough to move on to the following Grade. 

Upper Secondary Art Schools

Art Schools were established under Law 3194/2003 and in line with Ministerial Decision 107922/Γ7/3-10-2003 they administer three direction learning programmes: a) Fine Arts, b) Drama-Film and c) Dance.  The primary purpose of Art Schools is to encourage students to pursue their interest in arts through preparatory learning programmes that help them build and develop their skills.  In addition to all General Education Gymnasium subjects, Art Schools are delivering subjects for all the above three areas.  Against this background and in accordance with Ministerial Decision 7888/D2/19/2-2016 and Ministerial Decision 7885/D2/19-2-2016, Art School Curricula have been designed around subjects relating to all areas of specialisation.

Taught times for Art Schools have been extended and according to Ministerial Decision 106486/D2/29-6-2016 they are 40 hours a week.  Art Gymnasium graduates and/or other Gymnasium students (through graduate admission examinations) are entitled to enrolment in Art School Grade A. The total number of existing Art Schools in Greece is three (3).

Upper Secondary Ecclesiastical Schools

Ecclesiastic Education is included in the Greek education system.  Ecclesiastical schools have set as their primary aim to educate and sufficiently train learners in the values of Orthodox faith and Christianity, to make appointments to the Orthodox Church and to fulfil the Church's aims as secular clergy.  Three (3) Upper Secondary Ecclesiastical Schools operate in the country.  Pupils in these schools follow the same curriculum taught in Day Schools and are additionally taught some courses, such as the Old and New Testament, Byzantine Music, Hagiology and Liturgy.

Upper Secondary Schools of Special Needs Education

Upper Secondary Schools of Special Needs Education are addressed to learners with special educational needs and include a preliminary Grade and three subsequent ones A, B, C.  Lower Secondary School graduates with a disability and special educational needs may directly enrol in Grade A of the Upper Secondary School, after an evaluation carried out by the relevant Centre of Differential Diagnosis, Diagnosis and Support of Special Educational Needs and up to the 23rd year of their age (Law 3699/2008).  The timetable of Grades A, B and C is specified by Ministerial Decision 147356/D3/13-9-2016.

Upper Secondary Minority Schools

Two Upper Secondary Minority Schools operate to meet the educational needs of Muslims living in the geographical department of Thrace.  The Treaty of Lausanne (1923) is the basis of operation of such schools, in line with the legislative provisions and regulatory decisions, issued in the context of international cultural agreements.  These schools follow a bilingual curriculum which includes Greek and Turkish courses, while instruction is delivered in both the Greek and Turkish language.  Minority Schools (Dimotika, Gymnasia and Lykeia) are operating in the context of provisions issued for minority education services.  However, minority pupils are also entitled to mainstream public school education.

Seminaries

Seminaries (Religious Schools with core courses such as the Quran, Islamic Law, etc.) on the basis of Law 2621/1998, are entitled to award qualifications equivalent to those of public Ecclesiastical Schools, while their curriculum is trilingual and instruction is delivered in the Turkish, Arabian and Greek language. There are two (2) six-grade Seminaries in Greece.

Upper Secondary Cross-cultural Schools

Upper Secondary Cross-cultural Schools aim to promote inclusion in education and social inclusion for immigrant children, based on the value of equity and with respect for their own cultural identity.  They also aspire to tackle cultural and racist discriminations and xenophobia.  Under Law 4415/2016, these schools are operating as Experimental Cross-cultural Education Schools.  They pursue collaborations with Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and implement experimental educational programmes pertaining to cross-cultural education and social inclusion, regardless of race or cultural background.  Curricula and teaching methods are implemented in the manner of existing Experimental Schools.

School of European Education

Established in Crete by Law 3376/2005, the school follows the curricula taught at European Schools and covers pre-primary, primary, lower and upper secondary education.  It aims at providing education to: a) children of the European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) personnel, of other EU Services, b) of the personnel of International Organisations and diplomatic delegations headquartered in Heraklio, Crete, c) to Lower Secondary Education graduates of the School of European Education, d) to students transferred from other European Schools or from Schools of European Education (type II), as well as e) to children residing in the wider region of the particular school (Ministerial Decision 179/84525/Z2/27-6-2008).  The School of European Education has two language departments, Greek and English.  Pupils with a different mother tongue not included in the language departments must pass a test in the language of the department they will choose to attend in order to have their knowledge in the instruction language verified.

Geographical Accessibility

In order to ensure the provision of secondary education to pupils in even the most remote areas, an effort is made for the geographical distribution of General Lyceums to be consistent with the needs and particularities of local conditions. The establishment and operation thereof is the outcome of the collaboration, the opinion and the recommendations of the local community and the competent local Educational Authorities.

By virtue of Ministerial Decision 24001/11-6-2013 as amended by Ministerial Decision 31636/9-9-2015 and in force, responsibility for the transportation of students lies with the Region in the boundaries of which the school where students are transported to is located.  More specifically, the Regional Authorities offer free transportation to public General Upper Secondary School students either via special student cards and their own means of transport for distances over 4,000 meters, or via a public service contract for distances over 5,000 meters.  The second case takes effect on condition that students are enrolled in a school on the basis of the spatial distribution of the competent Secondary Education Directorates of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs.  Students having completed secondary education and enrolled in any school are not entitled to free transportation.

Admission Requirements and Choice of School

By virtue of Presidential Decree 104/1979, students attend the Upper Secondary School in the Region of their permanent place of residence.  The Secondary Education Director decides the boundaries of an area in a city covered by a school as well as the maximum number of students enrolled in the school.  If the said areas cannot be designated under the competence of only one Education Director, such decision is taken by the competent Regional Secondary Education Service Council (PYSDE).

Attendance in Upper Secondary Education Schools is non-compulsory. The graduation certificate of Lower Secondary School is a requirement for enrolment.

Age Levels and Grouping of Pupils/Students   

There is no age limit for enrolment in Upper Secondary Education Schools.  However, for the most part, pupil age ranges from 15 to 18 years.  Every Grade consists of one or more classes, depending on the number of pupils.  There cannot be more than 27 pupils per class (Joint Ministerial Decision 129818/Γ2/16-9-2013).  Classes with 27 pupils and above are divided in groups.

In Upper Secondary Schools, the instruction of different cognitive fields, as they are described in the National Curricula, is undertaken by teachers having a respective specialisation.  For example, the teaching of History is the work of a Philologist, Mathematics is the work of a Mathematician, Physics is the work of the Physicist etc.

In order to ensure the smooth operation of the school unit and provided there is the relevant need, teachers may be required to teach a subject/subjects similar to their specialisation, such as for example the subject of History may be appointed to a Foreign Language teacher.  The assignment of subjects to teachers of secondary education is determined by Ministerial Decision 94588/D2/25-8-2016 as amended and supplemented by Ministerial Decision 136680/D2/25-8-2016.Under the applicable legislation, the teaching of a specific course by a teacher of a respective specialisation is not limited in terms of the number of years the teacher has undertaken to teach that specific course to a specific group of pupils.

Organisation of the School Year  

The organisation of the school year for Upper Secondary School is fixed at central level.  School year begins on September 1st and ends on August 31st of the following year.  The teaching year in General Upper Secondary Schools begins on September 1st and ends on June 30th.  It is divided in two terms.  The first term runs from September 1st to January 20th; the second term starts on 21st January and ends in May on a date fixed by a decision of the Minister of Education, Research and Religious Affairs.  The exam period follows, with promotion exams for Grades Α and Β, while Grade C pupils sit on the national (pan-Hellenic) exams which lead to their entrance in HEIs, and the upper secondary school leaving certificate exams.

The teaching year encompasses Christmas and Easter holidays of 4 weeks total duration.  Summer holidays begin at the end of the teaching year, until September 10th.

The number of teaching days amounts to 160 per year and are organised into 30 weeks of 5 days each (Monday to Friday) per year.  The number of teaching hours are 35 on a weekly basis for Day General Lyceums and 25 for General Evening Lyceums.  The timetables are established on the basis of the National Curricula by Ministerial Decisions and applied collectively to all types of General Lyceums throughout the country’s territory. Details on the timetables of Lyceums can be found in the section "Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education".  Other types of Lyceums implement a slightly different schedule, such as Art Lyceums, since apart from the established schedule, pupils are also taught art classes.

Organisation of the School Day and Week

The weekly teaching time per grade is defined at central level for all types of General Upper Secondary Schools.  The classes in day schools begin at 08:15 and end at 14:10, while in evening schools, classes begin at 19:20 and end at 22:55.  However, the allocation of courses on a weekly basis is not defined centrally but it is a decision of each school unit and is formed in accordance with the needs thereof.

DAY UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOLS TIMETABLE

MONDAY
TUESDAY
WEDNESDAY
THURSDAY
FRIDAY
Teaching hours
Subjects
(begining and ending of teaching hours)
Duration
of teaching hours
Duration
of breaks
1st hour
08.15 - 09.00
45'
5'
2nd hour
09.05 - 09.50
45'
10'
3rd hour
10.00 - 10.45
45'
10'
4th hour
10.55 - 11.40
45'
10'
5th hour
11.50 - 12.35
45'
10'
6th hour
12.45. - 13.25
40'
5'
7th hour
13.30 - 14.10
40'
-


EVENING UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL TIMETABLE


MONDAY
TUESDAY
WEDNESDAY
THURSDAY
FRIDAY
Teaching hours
Subjects
(begining and ending of teaching hours)
Duration
of teaching hours
Duration
of breaks
1st hour 19.20 - 20.00 40' -
2nd hour 20.00 - 20.40 40' 10'
3rd hour 20.50 - 21.30 40' 10'
4th hour 21.40 - 22.20 40' -
5th hour 22.20 - 22.55 35' -

Within the framework of Compensatory Education and for the reduction of early school leavers, the re-integration of pupils into the learning process and the improvement of their performance, Additional Teaching Support programmes operate in General Upper Secondary Schools.

Apart from classrooms, for each school there is provision for ancillary rooms, gym, events hall, library and natural sciences laboratory.  Each Grade is conducted in the same classroom throughout the school term; the rest of the rooms are used in rotation by all Grades depending on weekly timetable or last-minute events.