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Greece:National Reforms in School Education

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Overview Greece

Contents

Greece:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Greece:Historical Development

Greece:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Greece:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Greece:Political and Economic Situation

Greece:Organisation and Governance

Greece:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Greece:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Greece:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Greece:Organisation of Private Education

Greece:National Qualifications Framework

Greece:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Greece:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Greece:Funding in Education

Greece:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Greece:Higher Education Funding

Greece:Adult Education and Training Funding

Greece:Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Primary Education

Greece:Organisation of Primary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Higher Education

Greece:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Greece:First Cycle Programmes

Greece:Bachelor

Greece:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Greece:Second Cycle Programmes

Greece:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Greece:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Greece:Adult Education and Training

Greece:Distribution of Responsibilities

Greece:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Greece:Main Providers

Greece:Main Types of Provision

Greece:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Greece:Teachers and Education Staff

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Management and Other Education Staff

Greece:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Greece:Management Staff for Higher Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Quality Assurance

Greece:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

Greece:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Greece:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Greece:Mobility and Internationalisation

Greece:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

Greece:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Greece:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Greece:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:National Reforms in School Education

Greece:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Greece:National Reforms in Higher Education

Greece:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Greece:European Perspective

Greece:Legislation

Greece:Institutions

Greece:Glossary

2017

No reform

2016

14.2 Presidential Decree 126/2016 – General Lower Secondary Education Student Assessment

Major changes regarding student assessment are implemented by the newly published Presidential Decree 126/2016 “On School and Academic Year and Student Assessment of General Lower Secondary Education Schools”.

In particular, each school term runs in two (2) quarters instead of three (3) trimesters.

Subjects taught in general lower secondary education schools are grouped into three categories: 

Group A:

  1. Modern Greek Language and Literature 
  2. Mathematics 
  3. Physics 
  4. History

Group B: 

  1. Ancient Greek Language and Literature (Ancient Greek Language, Ancient Greek texts with Translation)
  2. Chemistry
  3. Biology
  4. Geology – Geography
  5. Social and Political Studies 
  6. Religion
  7. English 
  8. Second Foreign Language 
  9. Home Economics

Group C:

  1. Technology – Information Technology
  2. Music – Art
  3. Physical Education

Student assessment takes into account, amongst others, classroom participation, performance on individual and group exercises assigned as part of the daily learning process and one-hour classroom written tests.  Final revision exams take place in June after the end of classes only in the four subjects of group A.

One other essential change concerns student progression and certification.  Student progression to grades A and B or graduation (at the end of grade C) takes place when students have a mark of at least ten (10) in every subject or when their general annual mark is thirteen (13).  If students fail to meet the afore-mentioned progression or school graduation requirements, they must repeat examination for the subjects that they scored lower than a ten (10).

School heads are responsible for organising support tuition programmes for underachieving students.  These are carried out at the end of the first period of examinations (in June) for all groups A and B failed subjects.  Repeat examinations are administered for the above students during the third ten-day period of June (second period of examinations).  When grade A and B students fail a repeat examination and hence progression to the next grade, they have to re-attend the same grade.  Concerning grade C students who have failed repeat exams and therefore graduation, there is an option to re-sit examinations before the beginning of the new term in September (third period of examinations).

Law 4415/2016 – Educating Refugee Children

Law 4415/2016 provides for the establishment of host structures for educating refugee children.  The organisation, operation, co-ordination and educational programme of the afore-mentioned structures, as well as the criteria and the procedure of appointing staff shall be determined in a forthcoming Common Ministerial Decision between the Ministers of Education, Research and Religious Affairs and Finance.

The above institution will involve seconded teachers; in addition, supply teachers will be hired through the State Budget of the Public Investment Programme or through the National Strategic Reference Framework (ESPA).

Ministerial Decision F12/657/70691/D1/26-4-2016 – All-Day Primary School

According to Ministerial Decision F12/657/70691/D1/26-4-2016, a Single Type of All-Day Primary School is established with a new revised daily timetable and teaching hours from school year 2016-2017.

The compulsory timetable in the Single All-Day Primary School consists of thirty (30) teaching hours weekly for all classes which run from 08:10 to 13:15, while the optional all-day programme lasts until 16:00.  The all-day programme includes time for food and resting and two (2) teaching hours.   One hour is devoted to the module “Study-Preparation” that is taught by primary school teachers (PE70).  The second teaching hour is devoted to one of the following modules: Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), English, Sports, Arts, Music, Drama and Cultural Groups Activities.

All-Day school pupils are allowed to leave school at 16:00, or after the end of the second teaching hour of the all-day programme, that is at 15:00.

National Dialogue for Education

According to Ministerial Decision 11803/18-12-2015, “Formation of the Committee and Appointment of Members for the National and Social Dialogue for Education”, the National and Social Dialogue for Education has been instigated, within the framework of developing a National Plan for Education that shall entail radical changes at all education levels.

More specifically, several committees will be formed and the topics to be discussed will be, among others, the following: the National Education Framework, the Reform of Compulsory Education, Teacher Training/ Education, Digital Education, Admission to Higher Education, Reform in Higher Education, Vocational Education and Education Funding.  In this context, worldwide good practices will be examined with the participation of renowned education experts.

The digital platform Dialogos, where citizens, citizen groups and other bodies can upload their proposals, will operate along with the discussions of the afore-mentioned committee.  This platform will be enriched with the results of previous dialogue cycles for education, as well as with the findings for education of former governments and international organisations.

More information can be found at the link below:

http://dialogos.minedu.gov.gr/

2015

Law 4354/2015 - Regulations concerning Primary and Secondary Teachers' Salaries

According to Law 4354/2015"Management of non-performing loans, wage settlements and other urgent regulatory provisions concerning the agreement of budgetary objectives and structural reforms", a reclassification on the pay scale of all public servants has been introduced.  Teachers that serve in Public Primary and Secondary Education Schools are also affected by this change.  More specifically, the grading on the pay scale of teachers (who are public servants and hold a HEI degree) occurs irrespective of the pay scale on which they are being placed.  The introductory pay scale is MK1 and the final one is MK19.  Public servants who belong to the same category and are on the same pay scale are entitled to the basic salary that corresponds to it, regardless of their specialisation.  It is required that the teacher (public servant) has completed at least two (2) years of service in the lowest pay scale, in order to  progress from the lowest  to the highest pay scale.  Holders of PhD or Master’s Degrees are favoured, while as regards the allowance for positions of responsibility received by Headteachers or Directors of School Units, or family allowances received by beneficiaries, these shall not be amended.  It should also be noted that the classification on the new pay scale will be implemented immediately, that is on the 1st January 2016; however, further salary progression will be suspended until the 31st of December 2017 and reactivated shortly after.

Ministerial Decision F.151/142457/Α5/2015 – Measures Concerning Vocational Upper Secondary Schools Graduates

According to Law 4186/2013 and as part of the Vocational Upper Secondary Education re-organisation, Ministerial Decision F.151/142457/Α5/2015 was published in the Government Gazette. The latter defines the four (4) lessons that graduates of Vocational Upper Secondary Schools have to sit for, in order to enter Higher Education Institutes.  More specifically, candidates are examined in two (2) lessons of General Education, that is Mathematics and Greek Language which are common for all participants, and two (2) lessons of Specialization that vary depending on the orientation group and sector that the candidate has chosen.

Law 4327/2015 – Measures Concerning Primary and Secondary Education

In May 2015, new measures were introduced through Law 4327/2015, which was published in the Government Gazette 50/issue A/14-5-2015.  The reforms include changes in Model – Experimental Schools (Primary and Secondary Education), Upper Secondary Education (General and Vocational) and in the procedure for recruiting School Heads.

EXPERIMENTAL AND MODEL SCHOOLS

The term “Model Experimental School” which has been used up to now to describe this kind of school is repealed.  Henceforth, according to
 Law 4327/2015, there is a clear distinction between Model and Experimental Schools.  School units described as “Model Experimental Schools” are now defined as “Experimental Schools”.  Only nine school units are excluded from this categorization and are classified as “Model Schools”.

Experimental Schools operate in all educational levels and aim at implementing new study programmes, innovative teaching methods and practices, modern educational materials and new models of administration and school operation.  On the other hand, Model Schools exist solely in Secondary Education.  The teachers serving in these school units are highly qualified with a rich teaching experience.  Pupils are admitted in Experimental Schools by drawing lots, whereas the pupils’ admission procedure and selection criteria for Model Schools are determined by the Model Experimental Schools Steering Committee (DEPPS), following the recommendation of the Teacher's Board and the Scientific Supervisory Council (EPS) of each school unit.

UPPER SECONDARY EDUCATION (GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL)

The general average of 9,5 out of 20, which results from the pupils’ annual performance marks in all courses tested in writing, is to be given as a passing grade for pupils of General Upper Secondary Schools.

According to Law 4327/2015, the Minister of Culture, Education and Religious Affairs, after consulting with the Educational Policy Institute (IEP), determines the secondary and post-secondary Circle of Studies of Upper Secondary Vocational Schools’ Curricula.  At the same time, additional Orientation Groups with their corresponding sectors and specializations are being implemented.

As regards admission to Higher Education for General Upper Secondary and Vocational Upper Secondary Schools’ graduates, the national level written exams derive from the class syllabus and are issued exclusively by the Central Examinations Committee.  The so-called “Bank of Exam Topics” will function as an optional advisory tool for students and teachers.

RECRUITING SCHOOL HEADS

The procedure for recruiting school heads is duly described in Law 3848/2010, which has been replaced by the recently passed Law 4327/2015 (G.G. 50-A’/14.5.2015).  According to the latter, teachers of the respective grade with at least ten-year educational experience in the categories of schools where they wish to be appointed as school heads may apply for the relevant official position.  Under the same law, the general selection criteria are classified in the following categories: a) the scientific –pedagogical education and training of the candidate; b) the service status, leadership and management experience, as derives from the candidate’s file; c) the candidate’s personality and composure, as well as his/her contribution to the educational task from his/her previous positions, according to the respective evaluation reports (this criterion is assessed by secret ballot by the school teachers board).  For each of these criteria, there is a particular appraisal points system.  Candidates are classified in tables on the basis of their scoring.  After careful consideration of the scores, the Regional Education Director proceeds to the selection and appointment of school heads.  The approval of the Regional Primary Education Service Council or the Regional Secondary Education Service Council (PYSPE/ PYSDE) precedes this decision.  The school heads’ term of office lasts two years.

Circular (ref. no. 40132/D2/11-3-2015)

A new circular (ref. no. 40132/D2/11-3-2015) has recently been published by the Directorate for Primary and Secondary Education of the Ministry of Culture, Education and Religious Affairs and signed by the Deputy Education Minister.  The Ministry endorses a Legislative Regulation that will change: a) the written promotion exams; b) the way of pupils’ promotion in Day Upper Secondary Schools Grades A and B, and in Evening Upper Secondary Schools Grades A, B and C; and c) the entry requirements to higher education.

More specifically:

As far as Day Upper Secondary Schools Grades A and B and Evening Upper Secondary Schools Grades A, B and C are concerned, the choice of questions for the promotion exams shall no longer be determined by a percentage of 50% from the so-called “Bank of Exam Topics”, starting from the May-June examination period.  For all the above Grades, the questions will be chosen exclusively by the teacher or teachers teaching the same course to the same Grade and will be common for all classes of the particular Grade.

With regard to the promotion of pupils to Grades A and B of the Day Upper Secondary School and Grades A, B and C of the Evening Upper Secondary School, the general average of 9,5 out of 20 is to be given as a passing grade.  The latter results from the annual performance marks of the pupils in all courses tested in writing, including the course of the Research Project.

Finally, the new legislative change affects Day Upper Secondary Schools Grade A pupils and Evening Upper Secondary Schools Grades A and B pupils who studied during school year 2014-2015 and are currently studying in Day Upper Secondary Schools Grade B pupils and Evening Upper Secondary Schools Grades B and C, respectively.  The general promotion grade will no longer be integrated in the calculation of the total number of points a candidate scores for university entry.

2014

Additional points awarded to permanent and substitute teachers serving in remote schools

Due to lack of school staff in hardly accessible mountainous and insular parts of the country and in the framework of support for local communities, the Ministry of Culture, Education and Religious Affairs introduced special incentives as regards the award of bonus points to permanent and substitute teachers who choose to serve in the aforementioned schools. In particular, real time teaching service in these schools is calculated as twice that for the rest of the schools in the country. This increased allocation of points is considered for the appointment of permanent teachers and for hiring substitutes to cover permanent positions in accordance with the applicable legislation.

Particular issues for the implementation of the regulation are to be described through ministerial decisions. The first application of the provisions will start beginning school year 2014/15, both in primary and secondary education.

This setting is included in law 4283/2014 (Government Gazette 189/issue A/10-09-2014) entitled "Establishment and organisation of the Council of National Policy on Education and other provisions".

The new “Social School”

September 11, 2014 marked the opening day of the 2014/15 school year and the launch of the “Social School” programme.  Actions of the “Social School” are implemented through the collaboration of   ministries and agencies such as the Ministry of Culture, Education and Religious Affairs, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Culture and Sports, the Ministry of Public Order and Citizen Protection, the General Secretariat of Sports, the Hellenic Athletics Federation, the Hellenic Center for Disease Control & Prevention, the Institute of Mental and Sexual Health, the Greek Organisation against Drug Abuse, the National School of Public Health, the Hellenic Olympic Committee, the International Olympic Truce Centre, the Institute of Educational Policy, the Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens, the Greek Guiding Association, Harokopio University and the Youth and Lifelong Learning Foundation.

The new “Social School” aims at  drawing the attention of various issues to teachers, parents and students.  Their active participation is of imperative importance, because they will gain experience, knowledge and skills in order for the school to become a place where students will be able to develop a healthy and active concept of citizenship.  During the school year, the following issues will be explored through the implementation of a wide range of activities: combating obesity through sports and nutrition, overcoming addiction to alcohol, smoking, drugs and the Internet, combating hooliganism, racism and school violence, sex education, first aid, prevention of infectious diseases and accidents, and the introduction of the concepts of Olympism and Arts in education.

The new “Social School” gradually spreads across all school units and parents’ schools and is in constant collaboration with the agencies and the co-ordinators appointed by the educational directorates.  The “Kids Athletics”  and “I Love Sports” programmes of the Hellenic Athletics Federation have already begun; a great number of pupils are actively involved in various events relating to the above programmes.

Moreover, the same date marked the beginning of teleconferences on the topic of safe online surfing and the programme of health education (regarding smoking and prevention of infectious diseases and STDs) at schools.  At the same time, the instructors of parents’ schools have attended the prerequisite meetings and seminars.  In addition, as far as parents’ schools are concerned, it should be noted that they constitute a major part within the framework of the “Social School”.  Parents’ schools now operate in schools of every prefecture and in collaboration with the relevant agencies, they address and cater for all parents.  More specifically, they seek to support parents and  offer information and opportunities for thinking.  Specialised scientists  have offered their services and will be present to discuss various issues with parents, such as: addictions (smoking, alcohol, drugs, the Internet), nutrition, racism, prevention of STDs and sex education.