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Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

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Overview Greece

Contents

Greece:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Greece:Historical Development

Greece:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Greece:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Greece:Political and Economic Situation

Greece:Organisation and Governance

Greece:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Greece:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Greece:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Greece:Organisation of Private Education

Greece:National Qualifications Framework

Greece:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Greece:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Greece:Funding in Education

Greece:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Greece:Higher Education Funding

Greece:Adult Education and Training Funding

Greece:Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Primary Education

Greece:Organisation of Primary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Higher Education

Greece:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Greece:First Cycle Programmes

Greece:Bachelor

Greece:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Greece:Second Cycle Programmes

Greece:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Greece:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Greece:Adult Education and Training

Greece:Distribution of Responsibilities

Greece:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Greece:Main Providers

Greece:Main Types of Provision

Greece:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Greece:Teachers and Education Staff

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Management and Other Education Staff

Greece:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Greece:Management Staff for Higher Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Quality Assurance

Greece:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

Greece:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Greece:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Greece:Mobility and Internationalisation

Greece:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

Greece:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Greece:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Greece:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:National Reforms in School Education

Greece:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Greece:National Reforms in Higher Education

Greece:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Greece:European Perspective

Greece:Legislation

Greece:Institutions

Greece:Glossary

Student Mobility

Law 3255/2004 institutes the concept of joint graduate and postgraduate programmes. Law 3374/2005 "Quality assurance in Higher Education. Credit transfer and accumulation system-Diploma Supplement" allowed the implementation of Diploma Supplement and the European Credit Transfer System- ECTS. The system in question supports and facilitates student mobility to Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) abroad.  Higher Education Institutions organise their graduate and postgraduate curricula based on the credit transfer and accumulation system. 

Upon ministerial decision (Government Gazette 1466/13-8-2007), Higher Education Institutions shall organise their graduate and postgraduate curricula based on the European Credit Transfer System, in order to allow the curricula description according to the credits assigned to their modules and activities, as well as the transfer and accumulation of outcomes to other similar study programmes in the same or other Higher Education Institution at national and European level.

The  Law 4009/2011 on the structure, operation, quality assurance for studies and internationalisation of HEIs, encodes and updates the legislation regarding study programmes of cooperation among HEIs of the country or among institutions from Greece and institutions from other countries that may be offered in other languages apart from Greek. It is worth noting that within the exploration of the self governance of the HEIs, the terms, the prerequisites and the process for participation in programmes of cooperation as well as the bodies responsible for approving and supervising these programmes, are regulated in the HEIs Organisation. Furthermore, Law 4009/2011 introduces the process for accrediting all study programmes. This process is expected to be set off as the basic pillar for the qualitative upgrading of the educational services offered. Finally, in the same Law, there are regulations that establish student mobility by institutionalising the possibility of changing direction in the Institution (applied gradually), the possibility of attending lessons offered in other departments and student exchanges among Greek HEIs.

Mobility in Higher Education is supported by scholarships and Educational Agreements with third countries, aiming to promote the European and international dimension of education. Student mobility is also materialised through the participation of HEIs in European Commission programmes such as Erasmus+/Action Mobility  of Individuals.obility in Higher Education is supported by scholarships and Educational Agreements with third countries, aiming to promote the European and international dimension of education. Student mobility is also materialised through the participation of HEIs in European Commission programmes such as Erasmus+/Action Mobility  of Individuals.

The Council for the Recognition of Professional Qualifications is a collective body set up by the Independent International and European Relations Department of the General Secretariat for Lifelong Learning and the New Generation for the professional recognition of higher education qualifications obtained abroad.  The Council for the Recognition of Professional Qualifications is responsible for implementing in Greece Directive 2005/36/ΕΚ on the recognition of secondary education, post-secondary and higher education qualifications which certify vocational training skills. Directive 2005/36/ΕΚ has been absorbed into Greek legislation through Presidential Decree 38/2010.

In order to support the promotion of international education collaborations and mobility, the Ministry of Education has issued certain legislative provisions (Ministerial Decision Φ.151/47149/Α5/2016-Official Government Gazette 820/Β/28.03.2016) for entry of the following six categories of students into Higher Education Institutes:

•             Children born to Greek parents living overseas, Greek lyceum graduates

•             Children born to Greek parents working in public service positions overseas or international organisations with Greek participation, Greek lyceum graduates

•             Greeks who have graduated from upper secondary schools abroad

•             Foreign nationals

•             Expatriate grant-holders

Student Mobility through Scholarship Programmes

Scholarships granted by the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs

Directorate of Organisational and Academic Development

The Directorate is responsible for awarding: Foreign Government Scholarships for Greek students and Greek Government Scholarships for foreigners, foreign nationals and expatriate students, in line with Bilateral Cultural Agreements between Greece and other countries.

Scholarships granted by the State Scholarship Foundation

State Scholarships Foundation (IKY) is the designated National Agency for Scholarships since 1951, awarding grants for the promotion of academic excellence. More specifically, IKY:

• manages a small number of bequest grants for post-graduate studies and academic/doctoral research in Greece or abroad. The grant-holder selection process is based on written tests or other criteria determined by the bequest’s terms and conditions as well as the current legislation on bequests.

• awards grants for doctoral and post-doctoral research and training at the European University Institute in Florence. For academic years 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 a total of 5 grants will be awarded for doctoral research and 1 grant for post-doctoral research and training.

• awards scholarships to foreign nationals for post-graduate and post-doctoral studies in Greece. Every year, a number of grant schemes are announced for foreigners (foreign nationals or expatriates) from: a) European Union member states, Switzerland, Iceland, Norway, USA, Canada, Japan and Australia, b) Balkan and Eastern Europe (non-EU) countries, Asian, African and Latin American countries.

• awards scholarships to foreign nationals who wish to study Greek language and Culture courses. This scheme is intended for foreign nationals (regardless of their country of origin) who hold a Higher Education Degree in Humanities. This scholarship supports students for 8 months (each year from October 1st to May 31st) and is awarded exclusively for persons who are attending the special Greek language and culture courses and seminars administered by Greek Universities.  Certificate is awarded by the University upon completion of the courses. The scholarship covers accommodation and living expenses, tuition fees and subsistence, health insurance (public healthcare only), a monthly allowance of 150 Euro and a one-off 200 Euro allowance covering expenses incurred on arrival.  Scholarship holders are obliged to regularly attend all courses and activities. A total of 50 scholarships have been awarded for academic year 2014-2015.

• Awards scholarships for Greek expatriates studying (at bachelor or postgraduate level) at the Hellenic College Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology in Boston and Greeks studying at Theology schools in Greece; they cover expenses for a study period spent in Greece and Boston by the aforementioned student categories respectively. Duration of studies, student attendance and course units obtained at the Destination University are fully validated and recognised by the sending University. These scholarship awards are temporarily suspended.

Scholarships granted by other state bodies

A limited number of scholarships for Greeks studying abroad and for foreign nationals or expatriates are also awarded through other public agencies:

  • the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • The Hellenic Institute for Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Studies in Venice funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Education.

Scholarships and legacies by Private Institutions

There is a significant number of private foundations that award grants and bequests for higher education and postgraduate studies in specific areas.  This is an indicative list of such foundations:

  • Bodossaki Foundation:
  • Alexander S. Onassis Public Benefit Foundation

Erasmus+ European Programme Student mobility

Erasmus+ student mobility is promoted through the following actions:

  • Key Action 1 - Student and staff mobility in Higher Education is split into a) a study period carried out abroad at a partner Higher Education Institute and b) a work placement (traineeship) in a company or similar organisation based abroad.

European Programme/Erasmus Offices operating in Higher Education Institutes coordinate these programmes and provide information services for students who wish to send an application.

Students can move abroad for studies or work placements at all cycles of studies, for a total duration of 12 months per cycle (i.e. 12 months for bachelor-level studies, 12 months for post-graduate level studies and 12 months for doctorate-level studies/research).

Students are entitled to mobility allowance covering up to 12 months per cycle of study regardless of the type of student mobility (studies or work placement).

According to Erasmus+, recent graduates can move abroad for a work placement the year after their graduation. The period of placement is included in the 12-month limit specified for all cycles of study. Students who wish to carry out a post-graduation traineeship in a company or organisation in a Programme Country must enquire within the European Programme/Erasmus Office of the sending Institute during their final year of studies.

Please note that applications and the selection of recent graduates must be processed while students maintain an active student status. Students who have moved abroad for Lifelong Learning studies or placements are eligible to apply for 12-month mobility programmes through Erasmus+ but previous period of mobility will be counted against this limit. This is the case for zero-grant students as well.

Students moving to Higher Education Institutes located in Programme Countries, are entitled to a Monthly Allowance which may vary among different destination countries. Students moving for work placements in Institutions/Destination Organisations in Programme Countries are entitled to monthly allowance which may vary among destination countries and is 130 Euro higher than the allowance issued to students moving for studies.

Students who have been selected for moving for studies or traineeships must sign a Financial Agreement of Erasmus+ before moving abroad.

Successful applicants are required to sign a Learning Agreement for studies or a Learning Agreement for Traineeships between themselves, their Institute and the Receiving Institute/Destination Organisation in order to ensure recognition of the mobility period.

After being selected, students receive an Erasmus+ Student Guide outlining all details regarding students’ rights and obligations during their studies or traineeship.

  • International Student Mobility

Erasmus+ coordinates student mobility from and to Partner Countries. In order to carry out student mobility (first, second and third cycle) from and to Partner Countries, Greek Higher Education Institutes are required to sign an Inter-institutional Agreement with the respective Institute located in the Partner Country. Higher Education Institutes in Partner Countries are bound by this Agreement to abide by the terms set out in the Erasmus+ University Guide. The study period spent abroad can last from a minimum of 3 months to a maximum of 12 months. Institutes participating in the International Mobility Action are obliged to recognise the credits obtained by students during the mobility period spent in a Partner Country or in Greece.

  • Intensive short courses

Additionally, students are entitled to intensive short courses (5 days to 2 months) which bring together incoming students from different universities and promote effective learning in multicultural environments.

  • Mixed student mobility

It accommodates activities combining one or more short-term periods of physical (2 months in total) and virtual mobility for complementary preparation for future physical mobility.

Academic Staff Mobility

The Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs supports the exchange and mobility of academic staff:

Bilateral Educational Agreements and Bilateral Cultural Exchange Programmes

Bilateral Educational Agreements between Greece and other countries set the legal framework for cooperation. They are designed so as to establish mutual understanding between the parties involved and to promote cooperation in various scientific fields. The countries involved, through diplomatic channels, commit themselves to support the implementation of educational programmes, which promote mobility and encourage the development of contacts and networking among teaching and research staff, as well as other scientists that belong to Higher Education Institutions.

Bilateral Cultural Exchange Programmes are awarded based on bilateral cultural agreements that Greece and other countries have signed and aim to promote cooperation between the Academies of Science and between Higher Education Institutions, by implementing joint research projects, participating in international scientific conferences, exchanging teachers and research scientists and sharing information on issues falling under their competence.

The duration of the scientists' stay in the host country is 7 days on average.

The services which are responsible for organising, coordinating, financing and implementing these programmes are: a) The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, b) the Greek embassies abroad, c) the Directorate of International Relations in Education of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs, d) the State Scholarships Foundation and e) the Department D, Students Affairs and Scholarships of the Directorate of Organisational and Academic Development of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs. Specifically, the Department D  keeps statistical figures and data on the mobility of academic and other staff of Higher Education Institutions (researchers, doctoral students), in the framework of Educational Agreements and Programmes.

The amount of funding on behalf of Greece includes expenses for travel, daily allowance, whereas accommodation expenses are always covered by the host country. Participants continue to receive their regular pay from their work.

Finally, there is no particular provision for the recognition of performance and achievements of participants in the foregoing activities.

Funding European Programmes jointly

Programme to promote exchanges and scientific cooperation between Greece and Germany (IKYDA)

The State Scholarships Foundation and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) have worked together for the implementation, since 2002, of bilateral academic exchange services (IKYDA) and jointly funded research projects for the promotion of academic partnerships between Greek and German scholars and researchers. Each team's academic coordinator is in charge of preparing and sending out applications to the respective National Agency (IKY-DAAD). Academic coordinators in Greece must be teachers serving any AEI or TEI academic rank or researchers serving A, B or C-category Research Institutes based in Greece. Team members must be teachers serving any academic rank, researchers working for Research Institutes based in Greece, doctors, PhD candidates or post-graduate students. Each team must consist of at least three (3) researchers, including the academic coordinator, with no maximum number limit. Duration time for each research project is filled in the application form and can be one or two consecutive years. The budget for each research project cannot exceed 5000 Euro per year per country. Each of the two organisations proceeds with payment of allowances to own-country participants for covering travel and daily expenses only. Mutual visitations to partner institutes must be short-term.

Management and coordination of this programme in Greece is carried out by the IKY Department of Foreign Nationals Scholarships and Cultural Exchanges which collects and records information on academic mobility. Each programme is monitored by IKY. Results are based on progress reports submitted by the participants and performance is illustrated through conference announcements, joint publications in well-known journals, academic distinctions and scientific projects put into action.

Scholarship programmes coordinated by IKY together with the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)

IKY has partnered with CERN in order to deliver grants for participation into CERN educational programmes and delivers the IKY Fellowships for the Placement of Greek University PhD Candidates programme in the field of Theoretical and Experimental Physics. Through this programme and upon agreement signed with CERN, Greek university PhD candidates are receiving fellowships for moving and conducting part of their research in Theoretical and Experimental Particle Physics at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). These scholarship awards are temporarily suspended.

Law 4009/2011 "Structure, operation, quality assurance of studies and internationalisation of higher education institutions"

According to article 27 of Law 4009/2011, professors are entitled to receive fully paid scientific leaves for up to one year for every six years of service or for up to six months for every three years of service. The purpose of educational leave is the enrichment of the individual's knowledge with his participation in research or other educational project of another Higher Education Institution or scientific agency of the country or abroad.

Professors, who, during their scientific leave, cooperate with HEIs or other institutions abroad without pay, are entitled to their full salary increased by 80%. After the end of their scientific leave, they are are obliged to remain at their Institution for at least three years. Professors are also entitled to unpaid leave, unless their absence hampers the smooth functioning of the Institution. During the period of unpaid leave, all pension, health insurance and other arrangements are covered by them. The total duration of unpaid leaves may not exceed three years. Information concerning the participation of professors in mobility projects abroad in the framework of scientific leave are kept at the Higher Education Institutions

Private initiatives of Higher Education Institutions

Higher Education Institutions implement mobility projects for academic staff in the framework of bilateral agreements – partnerships that Institutions themselves develop on their own initiative, as well as through participation in international organisations. International organisations aim at promoting cooperation between Higher Education Institutions and at promoting quality and research in particular areas of interest.

Moreover, academic staff mobility takes place through participation in international conferences abroad and within the country. Furthermore, administrative staff participate in mobility programmes for vocational training purposes. Mobility programmes are addressed to academic staff, researchers and administrative staff and are coordinated and funded by the Special and Ordinary Account of the Higher Education Institution.

Moreover, in the context of joint Postgraduate Studies Programmes and preparation of doctoral thesis with the co-supervision between Greek Higher Education Institutions and the respective foreign Institutions (Article 10 of Law 3685/2008), there is provision for the movement of academic staff to provide research work.

The specific information on the level of participation in these activities, the financial aid and recognition of the mobility period abroad, is in the competency of the Higher Education Institutions that organise such activities.

Incoming mobility projects

As far as incoming foreign mobility is concerned, the State Scholarships Foundation (IKY) is awarding scholarships to foreigners (foreign nationals or expatriates) for 2nd cycle postgraduate studies and post-doctoral research carried out in Greece. These scholarships are announced every year for nationals from: a) Balkan and Eastern Europe (non-EU) countries, Asian, African and Latin American countries, b) European Union member states, Switzerland, Iceland, Norway, USA, Canada, Japan and Australia. A total of 30 scholarships have been awarded by IKY for academic year 2014-2015. The scholarship includes a €600 one-off allowance covering expenses incurred on arrival, health insurance (public healthcare only) and a subsistence allowance amounting to €800 for post-doctoral research and €600 for doctorate studies.  Doctoral scholarships cover one academic year and can be extended to three (3) years. Post-doctoral scholarships are initially six-month but it is possible to apply for up to two (2) years extension (if required by the research programme). Provided that it does not impede their research, grant-holders are allowed to work. Grant-holders are required to fulfill their academic obligations and demonstrate satisfactory progress (through the submission to IKY of progress reports and the qualifications obtained).

Thyespa

For the purpose of promoting Greek studies, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens organizes Thyespa. This a summer course in Modern Greek Studies which aims at familiarising foreigners with the Modern Greek Culture, Modern Greek Language, Literature, History and Arts. It is directed towards undergraduate, postgraduate students and members of teaching staff of departments at foreign Universities which teach subjects related to Greek studies. The programme is supported by the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs, the National Scholarships Foundation, the Greek Parliament, the National Tourism Organisation as well as from the local government. During the period 1989 - 2013, 5656 scholarship holders from 77 countries have participated. For 2013, the scholarship amounted to €500 each.

Course attendance is compulsory.  All students can sit progress assessment tests administered at the end of the programme. ECTS credits will be awarded to students who have successfully passed these tests after having completed a 80% minimum course attendance. A total of 6 credits is awarded for all levels. 1 extra credit will be awarded to 4-6 level students who have completed a minimum of 50% lecture attendance.  There is no fee for courses provided by the programme. Travel, accommodation and subsistence costs will not be reimbursed.

Erasmus+ European Programme Academic Staff Mobility

Staff Mobility in Higher Education for Teaching

This Action coordinates the funding of staff mobility in Higher Education abroad for teaching or training.

The programme grants Higher Education teaching staff permission to teach in partner Higher Education Institutes abroad. Staff mobility for teaching can be pertinent to any subject/field of study. In the context of this mobility programme, it is also possible to invite staff working in companies abroad for teaching in Higher Education Institutes.

Teaching and Administrative Staff Mobility for Training

This programme grants Higher Education teaching and administrative staff permission to participate in training activities (excluding conferences) or perform job shadowing in partner Institutes, or other similar agencies located in a Programme Country. This activity may last from 2 days to 2 months, excluding travel time. Teaching mobility must include a minimum of 8 taught hours per week (or per other shorter mobility period). Staff moving for teaching or training purposes are receiving travel and subsistence allowances. Staff in Higher Education Institutes who have been selected to move for teaching or training purposes are requested to sign an allowance agreement before moving abroad. It is required that staff (teaching and administrative) have signed Staff Mobility for Teaching Mobility Agreement or Staff Mobility for Training Mobility Agreement between themselves, their Institute and the Receiving Institute/Destination Organisation.

International Mobility for Staff in Higher Education

Erasmus+ coordinates mobility from and to Partner Countries, for staff in Higher Education.   In order to carry out staff mobility (academic and administrative) from and to Partner Countries, Greek Higher Education Institutes are required to sign Inter-institutional Agreement with the respective Institute located in the Partner Country. Higher Education Institutes in Partner Countries are bound by this Agreement to abide by the terms set out in the Erasmus+ University Guide. Staff mobility period can last from a minimum of 5 days to a maximum of 2 months.

Intensive short courses

Additionally, students are entitled to intensive short courses (5 days to 2 months) which bring together incoming staff from different universities and promote effective learning in multicultural environments.