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Greece:Main Types of Provision

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Overview Greece

Contents

Greece:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Greece:Historical Development

Greece:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Greece:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Greece:Political and Economic Situation

Greece:Organisation and Governance

Greece:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Greece:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Greece:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Greece:Organisation of Private Education

Greece:National Qualifications Framework

Greece:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Greece:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Greece:Funding in Education

Greece:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Greece:Higher Education Funding

Greece:Adult Education and Training Funding

Greece:Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Primary Education

Greece:Organisation of Primary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Higher Education

Greece:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Greece:First Cycle Programmes

Greece:Bachelor

Greece:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Greece:Second Cycle Programmes

Greece:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Greece:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Greece:Adult Education and Training

Greece:Distribution of Responsibilities

Greece:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Greece:Main Providers

Greece:Main Types of Provision

Greece:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Greece:Teachers and Education Staff

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Management and Other Education Staff

Greece:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Greece:Management Staff for Higher Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Quality Assurance

Greece:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

Greece:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Greece:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Greece:Mobility and Internationalisation

Greece:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

Greece:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Greece:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Greece:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:National Reforms in School Education

Greece:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Greece:National Reforms in Higher Education

Greece:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Greece:European Perspective

Greece:Legislation

Greece:Institutions

Greece:Glossary

Adult Education is offered through the formal education system (Second Chance Schools) or through the form of informal education (Vocational Training Schools, Vocational Training Institutes, Lifelong Learning Centres I and II, Colleges and Higher Education Institutes programmes).

Provision to Raise Achievement in Basic Skills

Second Chance Schools

Second Chance Schools (SDE) are Adult Education Schools, which operate according to the philosophy and principles of Adult Education.  Second Chance Schools operate under the General Secretariat for Lifelong Learning and Youth of the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, which is responsible for their operation.  The main goals of Second Chance Schools for adults are the following:

  • to complete compulsory education 
  • to connect with education and training systems
  • to acquire modern knowledge and competencies
  • to enhance their personality, recovering self-esteem and confidence
  • to enter the labour market or to improve their position in their workplace.

The curriculum is intensive and lasts 18 months.  It is divided into two nine-month periods (two school years).  The weekly schedule covers 21 teaching hours, which take place in the evening, between 4:30 or 5:00 and 8.30 or 9.00.  Successful completion of studies is certified by a certificate equivalent to the Lower Secondary Education Leaving Certificate.  The curriculum is flexible and open, allowing for a constant re-dedefinition of goals and modification of content, in order to adapt to students’ needs.

Teaching methods are innovative and based on the different way in which adults acquire knowledge, as well as their unique characteristics.  These specific methods allow for an experiential approach to knowledge, group learning and interdisciplinary approaches.  Students do not only acquire knowledge, but also social competencies like communication, co-operation, problem solving, etc.  Moreover, they are supported in their learning path by the Second Chance School's counselling services, an innovative institution which entails a psychologist and a career counsellor for each school.

Taught courses are:

  • Greek Language
  • Mathematics
  • Information Technology
  • English Language
  • Social Education
  • Environmental Education
  • Natural Sciences
  • Aesthetic Education
  • Orientation – Counselling on professional career issues

Second Chance Schools are co-funded by European and national resources, through the Operational Programmes of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs.

Provision to Achieve a Recognised Qualification during Adulthood Certification

Second Chance Schools

Second Chance Schools (SDE) are an institution which was established as a means of addressing social exclusion.  They target citizens of eighteen years of age or older who have not completed compulsory education and hence, face the danger of social exclusion and marginalisation.

This institution offers graduates the opportunity to be smoothly integrated in the social, financial and professional structures, as they are granted a certification equivalent to the Lower Secondary Education Leaving Certificate, which is recognised by the Supreme Council for Civil Personnel Selection (ASEP) and corresponds to level ISCED 2.  Graduates of Second Chance Schools are also given the opportunity to continue their studies in Upper Secondary Education Schools of all types, as well as in Vocational Training Schools (SEK).

For further information on Second Chance Schools, see section 8.4.1 "Provision to Raise Achievement in Basic Skills".

Vocational Training Schools (SEK)

Vocational Training Schools (SEK) were founded according to Law 4186/2013, in order to provide initial vocational training to graduates of compulsory formal education.  The supervision of these bodies and the responsibility for the shaping of their educational framework belongs to the General Secretariat for Life Long Learning and Youth of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs.  Grades A and B, as well as an Apprenticeship class, where a “Programme of Education in the workplace - Apprenticeship in the workplace” is implemented, operate in SEKs.  Attendance in SEKs lasts three (3) years.  The specialisations of orientation in SEKs are the following:

  • Agronomy
  • Food Technology and Nutrition
  • Applied Technology
  • Applied Arts and Art Studies
  • Tourist and Hospitality Industry, Aesthetics and Hairdressing, Make-up Art.

SEK graduates obtain a level 3 Certificate of Vocational Specialisation, while Apprenticeship Class graduates obtain a level 4 Certificate of Vocational Specialisation.

Under Law 4386/2016, the operation of these schools - public and private - is being terminated.  Exceptionally, in line with the decision by the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs, public SEKs governed by the Ministry of Education can convert into Public Institutes of Vocational Training for compulsory education adult graduates and vulnerable social groups.  In particular, the operation of public and private SEK schools running at the time of the issue of the afore-mentioned Law and in which students had already enrolled and are currently studying, is terminated:

  • a) gradually, for Grade A school term 2016-2017, Grade B school term 2017-2018 and Grade C school term 2018-2019, and
  • b) permanently on 31.08.2019

Vocational Training Institutes (ΙΕΚ)

By Law 3879/2010, the operation of public IEKs is supervised by the General Secretariat for Life Long Learning and Youth, with the main purpose of designing and supervising their educational framework.  ΙΕΚs belong to post-secondary education.  They accept graduates of formal non-compulsory education (general and vocational upper education schools), as well as Vocational Training Schools (SEK) graduates, depending on the specialisations offered. Attendance lasts five (5) semesters in total, divided in four (4) semesters of theoretical and laboratory training and in one term of Internship or Apprenticeship.  The specialisations of orientation of IEKs include the following fields:

  • Information Technology
  • Chemical Engineering
  • Apparel and Footwear
  • Structural Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical Engineering
  • Electronics and Automation
  • Management and Economics
  • Agronomy
  • Nutrition and Dietology
  • Food and Drink Technology
  • Art Studies and Applied Arts
  • Communication and Media
  • Tourism and Hospitality Industry
  • Health and Welfare.

Students who successfully complete their attendance in IEKs receive a Level 4 Diploma of Vocational Specialisation.

The certification system of initial vocational training of IEKs is implemented by the National Organisation for the Certification of Qualifications and Vocational Guidance (EOPPEP).  EOPPEP is also responsible for the definition of the graduates' professional rights.

Further information about IEKs can be found in chapter 6 “Secondary and Post-Secondary Education other that Higher Education”.

Provision Targeting the Transition to the Labour Market

“Vocational Training Voucher”

In the context of programmes co-funded by resources of Greece and the European Union (European Social Fund), the Ministry of Labour, Social Insurance and Social Solidarity defines the Manpower Employment Organisation (OAED) as the Intermediate Management Body of the Vocational Training Voucher Programme.

The “Vocational Training Voucher” Programme contains sub-programmes which target unemployed individuals of various professional fields, while the duration, content and the geographical distribution across the country varies from programme to programme.

The purpose of this programme is to achieve a structured entry to the labour market for unemployed individuals, which will potentially lead to their placement in positions in the economy's private sector.  There are criteria and procedures outlined in each programme.  Therefore, every unemployed individual who is chosen and wishes, can be registered in a “Registry of Beneficiaries” and is entitled to a “Labour Market Voucher” which allows him the opportunity to receive continuous vocational training services (theory and practice).

 Each programme includes:

  • A theoretical education programme.
  • An internship in the private sector of the economy aiming at the inclusion and smooth integration of the trainee in the working environment of the company.  The duration of the internship cannot exceed 6 months in total.
  • Support and counselling services for the guidance of trainees by the training provider, before and during the internship, which concern:
    • a) the identification and appropriate matching of the educational needs/competencies of the trainees with the needs of companies,
    • b) the placement, monitoring and supervision of the trainee by the training provider during the internship, through the supervisor of the Internship, and
    • c) additional services for the transformation of the trainees' internship into an employment contract and their placement in the company where they have completed their Internship.

Provision of Liberal (Popular) Adult Education

Lifelong Learning Centres Ι και ΙΙ

According to Law 4111/2013 and Law 4186/2013 Lifelong Learning Centres (KDBM) provide services of informal education, general adult education, continuous vocational training, professional orientation and counselling.

Lifelong Learning Centre Licence I and Lifelong Learning Centre Licence II are granted to natural persons, legal entities, associations of people and legal entities of public law by the Board of Directors of the National Organisation for the Certification of Qualifications and Vocational Guidance (EOPPEP).

According to Law 4093/2012, as Lifelong Learning Centres Level I are defined the (former) Laboratories of Liberal Studies (ΕΕS), which are included in the institutional framework of Laws 3696/2008 and 3879/2010 "Development of Lifelong Learning and other provisions" as providers of lifelong learning services. They provide services of informal education following an authorisation by the National Organisation for the Certification of Qualifications and Vocational Guidance (EOPPEP).  EESs, after obtaining authorisation, are registered in the Registry for bodies of lifelong learning, which is held by the General Secretariat for Lifelong Learning and Youth.

According to the same law (Law 4093/2012), as Lifelong Learning Centres Level II are defined the (former) Centres for Vocational Training (KEK).

Lifelong Learning Centres at Municipalities

This programme focuses on education and lifelong learning for all ages, with a view to fostering a positive attitude towards learning, promoting equal opportunities in accessing education, encouraging the productive use of free time, increasing accessibility chances in the labour market, and finally, linking or re-linking those who did not complete compulsory education with adult education.

According to the principles of equality of opportunity and non-discrimanation on the basis of race or origin, religion or belief, disability, gender and age, the education programmes administered by Lifelong Learning Centres are suitable for all adults (unemployed and employed people, regardless of gender, attainment level, country of origin, religion, place of residence), young people, students, etc.  The only requirements are genuine interest in acquiring knowledge and active participation.

Independent learning classes for vulnerable social groups (Romani, prisoners, muslim minorities, migrants - repatriates, disabled) have been set up for full and equal integration into society.

Municipalities have the option to open and operate Lifelong Learning Centres (KDVM), which will implement general adult education programmes with learning activities taking place at National and Local level.

National programmes selected by municipalities are reflecting the National and European policies in adult lifelong learning issues pertaining to the following themes:

  • Economy - Entrepreneurship
  • Quality of life - Environment
  • New Technologies
  • Language and Communication
  • Social Skills and Actions
  • Culture and Art
  • Vulnerable Social Group Programmes

Local programmes proposed by municipalities are based on local needs and aim to foster residents' economic, social, cultural and personal development.

The Lifelong Learning Centres Scheme for National and Local Programmes AP7 & AP8 is part of the Education and Lifelong Learning Entrepreneurship Programme administered by the Ministry of Education and is co-funded by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and national resources.

Schools for Parents Programmes

The institution of Schools for Parents began its pilot implementation in 2002, while since 2003 it has formed part of the operational programme “Education and Initial Vocational Training” of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs.  The programme targets parents of children of all ages, origin, education level, future parents, parents of children with disabilities, the elderly, vulnerable social groups, etc.

Nowadays, Schools for Parents operate in all prefectures of Greece, and since 2009 the following seven (7) educational programmes are being implemented:

  • Family in modern times, duration 50 hours,
  • Interracial relationships, duration 25 hours,
  • Third age development, duration 25 hours,
  • Co-operation between educators and the family, duration 25 hours,
  • Psychological support and health education for vulnerable social groups, duration 25 hours,
  • Counselling for parents of Children with Special Needs, duration 50 hours,
  • Stereotypes and discrimination within the family, duration 25 hours.

The main subject units analysed in the classes of the afore-mentioned programmes are: Structure and function of the Greek family, Child adaptation to school, Health and safety at home, School and children’s recreation areas, Addiction to smoking, alcohol, drugs, Driving behaviour and safety, Nutrition, Importance of physical exercise, Health and safety at the workplace, Sexual education, Third age and family, Free time management, Use of Information and Communication Technologies, Professional orientation, Consumption and advertising, Family budget, Co-operation between educators, parents and children, Educators, family and identification of aptitudes, Promotion of the equality of sexes, Students’ behavioural problems, Co-operation between parents and immigrants, Psychological support, Health education, Counselling for parents of children with disabilities, Stereotypes and discrimination within the family.

Their operation continues until today and they are funded by the operational programme "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs.

Other Types of Publicly Subsidised Provision for Adult Learners

Hellenic Open University

The Hellenic Open University (HOU) was founded by Law 2552/1997 with the mission to provide distance education at both undergraduate and postgraduate level.  For that purpose, it develops and implements appropriate learning material and methods of teaching.  The HOU as a Greek Institution of Higher Education is independent and autonomous.

Attendance is in the form of distance teaching, where students receive educational material (printed, audiovisual, and in some cases electronic), which they study at their own time.  Students are required to write essays (according to the subject of their studies) and participate in the final exams at the end of their ten-month studies on each subject unit.  The final exams are repeated once.  These exams are conducted in the headquarters of the HOU, as well as in other cities.  In the context of studies, group counselling meetings are organised in the main cities of the country, so as to cover the largest possible student population across the country.

The HOU consists of the following schools:

  1. Humanities
  2. Social Sciences
  3. Science & Technology
  4. Applied Arts

In order to enrol at an undergraduate programme of the HOU, students are required to have obtained an Upper Secondary Education Leaving Certificate or an equivalent or corresponding certificate of secondary education, obtained either in Greece or abroad.  Students above 23 years of age are admitted by priority. Students with special needs are also admitted in the HOU at a percentage of 5%, in addition to the pre-determined available positions.

If needed, an electronic draw may also be performed, because the number of available positions is usually smaller than the number of interested candidates.  A public prosecutor is present in order to ensure the integrity of the procedure.

The HOU provides:

  • Bachelor Degree, for the acquisition of which the successful attendance of and examination in at least twelve (12) subject units are necessary (ISCED 6 level)
  • Master's Degree (ISCED 7 level)
  • PhD Degree (ISCED 8 level).  In order to obtain a PhD degree, a student must hold a relevant Master's degree and write a doctoral thesis.
  • Certificate of Undergraduate Education.  It may be granted to undergraduate students who have enrolled in HOU in order to attend an undergraduate education programme of a specific duration, shorter than that required for the acquisition of a Bachelor Degree.
  • Postgraduate Education Certificate.  It may be granted to postgraduate students who have enrolled in HOU in order to attend a postgraduate education programme of a specific duration, shorter than that required for the acquisition of a Master's Degree.
  • Certificate of Attendance of a Subject Unit.  These are granted to HOU students following a relevant application and under the condition that they succeed in the examination of one or more subject units.

The programme has been funded since its beginning by the operational programmes of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs. However, students make a participation payment, in order to obtain the necessary educational material and cover other operational costs.

Odysseus

The programme "Education of Immigrants in the Greek Language, the Greek History and the Greek Culture - ODYSSEUS" is targeted at EU citizens and third-country nationals irrespective of origin, aged 16 and above, who are legally resident in Greece.  It forms part of the operational programme "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs and it is implemented by the Youth and Lifelong Learning Foundation.

The programme aims at providing the language skills, as well as the social and intercultural competences required for the social inclusion of the participants and their families.  The completion of the study cycle grants students the right to participate in the Examination for the Certification of Attainment in Greek Level A2 of the General Secretariat for Lifelong Learning and Youth, which is a prerequisite for the obtaining of long stay status by citizens of third countries, according to the Greek Law for the Certification System.  The Educational Programme is structured in four (4) levels:

  • Α1 (duration 125 hours)
  • Α2 (duration 175 hours)
  • Β1 (duration 185 hours) and
  • Β1 with emphasis on listening and speaking skills (duration 195 hours).

Candidates are placed in levels Α1 and Α2 following an assessment of their level of attainment in Greek, via use of an appropriate "linguistic competences detection tool".  After the completion of Α1 level, students are assessed by another "progress tool", so as to establish the acquisition of competencies and abilities, which respond to the relevant language proficiency level.  In both learning levels, and so long as successful completion of a level is established, the student is granted a Lifelong Learning Certificate.

Lessons are available for free in all districts of the country.  Classes might be organised during the morning or evening, according to the student’s wish, and so long as the necessary minimum number of participants is reached (around 15).  Classes last three (3) hours and are repeated two (2) or three (3) times per week.  However, the fact that the programme falls within the field of lifelong learning means flexibility, as far as the daily and weekly schedule is concerned.  Students are allowed to be absent at a maximum of 20% of the hours of the programme's duration.