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Greece:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

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Overview Greece

Contents

Greece:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Greece:Historical Development

Greece:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Greece:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Greece:Political and Economic Situation

Greece:Organisation and Governance

Greece:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Greece:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Greece:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Greece:Organisation of Private Education

Greece:National Qualifications Framework

Greece:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Greece:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Greece:Funding in Education

Greece:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Greece:Higher Education Funding

Greece:Adult Education and Training Funding

Greece:Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Primary Education

Greece:Organisation of Primary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Higher Education

Greece:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Greece:First Cycle Programmes

Greece:Bachelor

Greece:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Greece:Second Cycle Programmes

Greece:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Greece:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Greece:Adult Education and Training

Greece:Distribution of Responsibilities

Greece:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Greece:Main Providers

Greece:Main Types of Provision

Greece:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Greece:Teachers and Education Staff

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Management and Other Education Staff

Greece:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Greece:Management Staff for Higher Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Quality Assurance

Greece:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

Greece:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Greece:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Greece:Mobility and Internationalisation

Greece:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

Greece:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Greece:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Greece:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:National Reforms in School Education

Greece:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Greece:National Reforms in Higher Education

Greece:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Greece:European Perspective

Greece:Legislation

Greece:Institutions

Greece:Glossary


The form of government of Greece is Parliamentary Republic.
The Constitution provides for the absolute separation of powers as follows:

  1. The legislative branch is exercised by the Parliament and the President of the Republic.
  2. The executive branch is exercised by the President of the Republic and the Government.
  3. The judicial branch is exercised by the courts.

A.  Legislative branch

The legislative branch is exercised by the Parliament.  The Parliament has three hundred (300) members that represent the citizens.  Members of the parliament are elected for a four-year term running from general elections date.

B.  Executive branch

The executive branch holds responsibility for the governance of the state through enforcement of the laws elected by the Parliament. Executive power is exercised by:

  • The President of the Republic.  The President of the Republic is the regulator of the constitutional normality.  He is elected by the Parliament for a five-year term.  He appoints the Prime Minister and has the power of appointment and removal of other members of the Government as well as Deputy Ministers.
  • The Government.  The Ministerial Council constitutes the Government of Greece.  It is composed of the Prime Minister, the Ministers, the Alternate Ministers and the Deputy Ministers.

C.  Judicial branch

The Judicial branch is responsible for resolving the disputes of citizens before courts, in accordance with the laws established by the state, and is exercised by the courts.

Local Government

The State administration is organised on the basis of decentralization.  According to Law 3852/2010 (Government Gazette B' 87/07-06-2010) “New Architecture of Local Government Administration and Decentralisation - Kallikratis programme”, the Municipalities and the regions constitute the first and second levels of local government.  As an expression of popular sovereignty, they form a fundamental institution of the public life of the Greeks, as this is established in the provisions of article 102 of the Constitution and the European Charter of Local Self-Government, ratified by Law 1850/1989.  Municipalities are self-governing territorial public entities and are the first level of local government.  Regions are self-governing territorial public entities and are the second level of local government.  Decentralized administrations are assembled as single units for the decentralized agencies of the state and exercise general decisive authority in state affairs of their region, in accordance with article 101 of the Constitution.

Ministries, agencies and bodies responsible for Education

Bodies/agencies responsible for education at a central level

Education policy is designed by the government and constitutes part of the general policy selected and implemented in various sectors. Responsibility for the design of the education policy, the supervision and monitoring of its implementation, as well as administrative responsibility for the entire education system across all fields, agencies and levels lies with the Minister of Education, Research and Religious Affairs.  Through the various services of the Ministry, the Minister drafts the bills and the presidential decrees regulating the functioning of education and publishes the relevant ministerial decisions.

Based on the Presidential Decree 114/2014, the services of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs are structured as follows:

  • Offices of the Minister, the Alternate Minister, the Deputy Ministers, the General Secretaries, the Special Secretary
  • Secretariat-General for the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs
  • Secretariat-General for Religious Affairs
  • Secretariat-General for Research and Technology
  • Secretariat-General for Lifelong Learning and Youth
  • Single Administrative Sector for European Resources
  • Regional Directorates of Primary and Secondary Education
  • Independent service units subject to the Minister

With regard to vocational education and training, policy is designed and curricula are approved of at the central level, mainly by the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs, in co-operation with the Ministry of Labor, Social Insurance and Social Solidarity.  The latter is also responsible for all private day nurseries and baby nurseries and the respectve foundations and non profit organisations.  Furthermore, the Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reconstruction is responsible for the Public Day Nurseries and Baby Nurseries.

Higher Education Institutions are self-governed Public Law Legal Entities, subject to supervision by the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs.

Lastly, certain activities and specific areas of responsibility have been delegated to bodies supervised by the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs, such as:

  • The Hellenic Quality Assurance and Accreditation Agency (ADIP).  Its mission is to support higher education institutions in the implementation of the processes aiming at ensuring and improving quality in higher education.
  • The Hellenic Primary and Secondary Education Quality Assurance Agency (HPSEQAA), whose mission, pursuant to Law 4142/2013, is to ensure high-quality educational work in primary and secondary education.
  • The National Organization for the Certification of Qualifications and Vocational Guidance (EOPPEP), whose mission is to develop and implement a comprehensive national certification system for non-formal education and to provide scientific support to all Career Guidance and Counseling Agencies in Greece.
  • The National Exams Organization (NEO).  Its mission is to ensure high quality and transparency in Exams.
  • The National Academic Recognition Information Center (NARIC), which is responsible for the recognition of degrees awarded by foreign Universities and Technological Institutions.
  • The Institute of Educational Policy (IEP), which is an executive scientific body supporting the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs in issues related to primary and secondary education, as well as to the transition from secondary to tertiary education. Its mission is to carry out scientific research and study issues related to primary and secondary education, as well as to provide continuous scientific and technical support to shaping and implementing of the education policy with regard to these issues.
  • The State Scholarships Foundation (IKY), the national body for scholarships, which designs, announces and implements domestic and international scholarship programs annually.
  • The Computer Technology Institute & Press “Diophantus” (CTI), a research and technology organisation focusing on the research and the effective use of Information and Communication Technologies in the sector of education.

Bodies / agencies responsible for education at a regional and central level

School education

The Regional Directorates of Primary and Secondary Education exercise management, control and supervision over all the decentralized agencies of Primary and Secondary Education of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs.  They manage educational policy, they make recommendations to the Minister on all matters under their competence and have the responsibility of linking the regional educational services to their respective central services and planning, evaluation and research bodies of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs.  Other decentralized services of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs that are subject to the relevant Regional Directorate of Education include:

  • The Directorates of Primary and Secondary Education, as well as all the regional education services falling under their purview.
  • School Advisers of Preschool, Primary, Special and Secondary Education.
  • The Regional Training Centers (RTC).
  • The Centers for Differential Diagnosis, Diagnosis and Support of Special Education Needs (CDDDS).
  • Centers for Environmental Education (CEE).

Furthermore, the school boards operate at a Municipality level.  The school boards are entrusted with the management of funds allocated to cover the operating expenses of primary and secondary education schools.  By means of Law 3852/2010 (Callicrates), school boards in each municipality are merged into two legal entities, one for primary education schools and one for secondary education schools.

The governing bodies of the secondary education schools are the school head, the deputy school head and the school teachers board.  The governing bodies of the elementary schools are the school head, the deputy school head and the school teachers board.  A pre-primary school teacher shall be the head of pre-primary schools.

Lifelong Learning

Management bodies of Lifelong Learning at a regional level are the respective service departments of the regional units, which exercise powers related to issues of lifelong learning (Law 4186/2013).  They constitute decentralized services of the Secretariat-General for Lifelong Learning and Youth of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs and are called Directorates of Lifelong Learning (DLL).  The regional services of each Directorate of Lifelong Learning (DLL), which constitute its decentralized services, are Vocational Training Schools (VTS), Vocational Training Institutes (VTI), Second Chance Schools (SCS) and Lifelong Learning Centers (LLC).  The operation of Vocational Training Schools, which opened under Law 4186/13, will be terminated.  Students enrolled in these schools can complete their studies by retaining the same eligibility rights they had before starting them.

Higher Education

The governing bodies of Institutions of Higher Education can be seen at an Institution level (Council, Rector, Senate), a School level (Dean, Deanship, General Meeting) and a Department level (President, Meeting).