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Greece:Glossary

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Overview Greece

Contents

Greece:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Greece:Historical Development

Greece:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Greece:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Greece:Political and Economic Situation

Greece:Organisation and Governance

Greece:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Greece:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Greece:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Greece:Organisation of Private Education

Greece:National Qualifications Framework

Greece:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Greece:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Greece:Funding in Education

Greece:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Greece:Higher Education Funding

Greece:Adult Education and Training Funding

Greece:Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Primary Education

Greece:Organisation of Primary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Higher Education

Greece:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Greece:First Cycle Programmes

Greece:Bachelor

Greece:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Greece:Second Cycle Programmes

Greece:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Greece:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Greece:Adult Education and Training

Greece:Distribution of Responsibilities

Greece:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Greece:Main Providers

Greece:Main Types of Provision

Greece:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Greece:Teachers and Education Staff

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Management and Other Education Staff

Greece:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Greece:Management Staff for Higher Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Quality Assurance

Greece:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

Greece:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Greece:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Greece:Mobility and Internationalisation

Greece:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

Greece:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Greece:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Greece:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:National Reforms in School Education

Greece:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Greece:National Reforms in Higher Education

Greece:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Greece:European Perspective

Greece:Legislation

Greece:Institutions

Greece:Glossary

Contents

Additional Teaching Support - Prostheti Didaktiki Stirixi (Πρόσθετη Διδακτική Στήριξη)

Prostheti Didaktiki Stirixi is applied in Upper Secondary School (Lykeio). This institution is available to any pupil lagging behind in school performance, not being able to follow and participate effectively in the educational process or for any pupil wishing to improve his/her performance.


Centers of Differential Diagnosis, Diagnosis and Support of Special Education Needs - Kentra Diaforodiagnosis, Diagnosis kai Ypostitixis Eidikon Ekpaideftikon Anagkon (KEDDY) / (Κέντρα Διαφοροδιάγνωσης, Διάγνωσης και Υποστήριξης Ειδικών Εκπαιδευτικών Αναγκών - ΚΕΔΔΥ)

Centers of Differential Diagnosis, Diagnosis and Support of Special Education Needs (Kentra Diaforodiagnosis, Diagnosis kai Ypostirixis Eidikon Ekpaideftikon Anagkon - KEDDY) are exclusively competent to suggest classification, enrolment, transfer and attendance of individuals with disability and special educational needs in the appropriate Special Education School or other educational context or Special Education programme, after having first identified and verified the kind and degree of difficulties pupils are facing. KEDDY are decentralised services of the Ministry of Education and belong to the Regional Education Directorates.


Child Centers - Paidikoi Stathmoi (Παιδικοί Σταθμοί)

Early childhood care is offered in Municipal Child Centers (Paidikoi Stathmoi) and Infant/Child Centers (Vrefonipiakoi Stathmoi) as well as in respective private structures. Paidikoi Stathmoi constitute premises of education and safe accommodation for children aged between 2.5 up to 5 years.


Colleges - Kollegia (Κολλέγια)

Colleges (Kollegia) are service providers of non-formal post-secondary non-tertiary education and training, exclusively offering studies on the basis of validation and franchising agreements with higher education institutions from abroad, recognized by the competent state authorities in their countries of origin.

Compensatory Education - Antistathmistiki Ekpaidefsi (Αντισταθμιστική Εκπαίδευση)

The aim of the programme is to re-induct students in the learning process, so that their overall performance will be improved and they will succeed in completing compulsory education.  It also aims at stemming the rate of dropouts and upgrading the quality of education and promoting inclusion.


Cross-cultural Schools - Scholeia Diapolitismikis Ekpaidefsis (Σχολεία Διαπολιτισμικής Εκπαίδευσης)

Cross-cultural Education Schools (Scholeia Diapolitismikis Ekpaidefsis) operate in selected areas to facilitate inclusion in the education system of students coming from abroad (immigrants, repatriate Greeks) and presenting educational, social, cultural particularities. Scholeia Diapolitismikis Ekpaidefsis operate at Primary, Lower and Upper Secondary Education level.


Doctoral Candidate - Ypopsifios Didaktoras (Υποψήφιος Διδάκτορας)

Doctoral Candidate (Ypopsifios Didaktoras) is a student who follows the third cycle of studies in Universities (Panepistimia).


Education Committee - Epitropi Paideias (Επιτροπή Παιδείας)

Education Committees (Epitropi Paideias) operates in Municipalities and consists of representatives from the Municipality, the Parents’ Association, School Heads, representatives from the productive forces and teachers' trade unions. Epitropi Paideias suggests proposals to the Municipal Council on issues regarding the optimal organization of schools in their area, allocation of appropriations for operational expenses in schools, the abolition or merging of schools, the construction, repair and maintenance of school buildings.


Educational Priority Zones (ZEP) - Zones Ekpaideftikis Proteraiotitas (Ζώνες Εκπαιδευτικής Προτεραιότητας - ΖΕΠ)

Educational Priority Zones (Zones Ekpaideftikis Proteraiotitas - ZEP) cover primary and secondary education schools operating in areas with low basic indicators of school inclusion (e.g. composite indicator of prosperity and development, total education indicator); these zones also include school networks with a significant participation of special groups of pupils (e.g foreigners, Roma, or minority populations etc.). The overall purpose of ZEP is to create and test in practice alternative and flexible educational approaches, ensuring equal inclusion in the educational system of pupils from areas with low educational and socio-economic indicators.


Enhancement Coaching Courses - Enischytika Frontistiriaka Tmimata (Ενισχυτικά Φροντιστηριακά Τμήματα)

Enhancement Coaching Courses (Enischytika Frontistiriaka Tmimata) at ZEP are available to students who have not participated in Taxeis Ypodochis ZEP (Reception Classes and Tutorial Courses) and face language difficulties, or have participated in Taxeis Ypodochis ZEP (Reception Classes) but continue to have difficulties with the language in the regular class. Enhancement Coaching Courses are provided after the conclusion of the daily timetable to all classes of the school unit.


General Upper Secondary School - Geniko Lykeio (Γενικό Λύκειο)

General Secondary non-Compulsory Education is offered in General Upper Secondary School (Geniko Lykeio), while Vocational Secondary non-Compulsory Education is offered in Vocational Upper Secondary School (Epangelmatiko Lykeio). Apolytirio Gymnasiou (Lower Secondary Education School Leaving Certificate) is the necessary requirement for enrollment. There is no age limit for enrollment in Geniko Lykeio. However, pupils attend Geniko Lykeio from the age of 15 to 18 years. Attendance in Imerisio Geniko Lykeio (Day General Upper Secondary School) is of three-year duration. In Esperino Geniko Lykeio (Evening General Upper Secondary School), attendance is of four-year duration.

Upper Secondary Schools (Lykeia) offering training and preparation for a specific vocational orientation are Mousika Lykeia (Music Schools), Kallitechnika Lykeia (Art Schools), Ecclesiastika Lykeia (Ecclesiastical Schools) and the Eidika Tmimata Athlitikis Diefkolinsis (Upper Secondary Athletic Facilitation Classes). In addition, Lykeia operate either applying experimental curricula, such as Peiramatika Lykeia (Model Experimental Schools), or they are addressed to pupils with specific educational needs, such as Lykeia Diapolitismikis Ekpaidefsis (Cross-cultural Schools), Meionotika Lykeia (Minority Schools) and Lykeia Eidikis Agogis kai Ekpaidefsis (Schools of Special Needs Education. There is also Lykeio Evropaikis Paideias (European Education School), in Herakleion (Crete).


General Upper Secondary School Leaving Certificate - Apolytirio Lykeiou (Απολυτήριο Λυκείου)

Lykeio (General Upper Secondary School) graduates are awarded a title called Apolytirio Lykeiou (General Upper Secondary School Leaving Certificate). It includes information on the final mark, as well as analytical scores that the student achieved in different subjects. It also entitles enrollment in Tertiary Education through Pan-Hellenic level Exams.


Hellenic Open University - Elliniko Anoichto Panepistimio (EAP) / (Ελληνικό Ανοιχτό Πανεπιστήμιο - ΕΑΠ)

The Hellenic Open University (Elliniko Anoichto Panepistimio - EAP) is an independent and fully self-governed Higher Education Institution in the form of legal entity under public law. Its seat is in Patras. EAP provides distance undergraduate and postgraduate education and training.


Higher Education Qualification - Titlos Spoudon (Τίτλος Σπουδών)

The degree or diploma awarded after successful completion of any of the three cycles of studies in a Higher Education Institution.


Infant/Child Centers - Vrefonipiakoi Stathmoi (Βρεφονηπιακοί Σταθμοί)

Early childhood education and care is offered in Municipal Child Centers (Paidikoi Stathmoi) and Infant/Child Centers (Vrefonipiakoi Stathmoi) as well as in respective private structures. Vrefonipiakoi Stathmoi constitute premises of education and safe accommodation for infants and children aged between 6 months up to 5 years.


Lifelong Learning Centers - Kentra Dia Viou Mathisis (KDVM) / (Κέντρα Διa Βίου Μάθησης- ΚΔΒΜ)

Lifelong Learning Centers (Kentra Dia Viou Mathisis – KDVM) are providers of non-formal education, general adult education, continuing vocational training, vocational guidance and counseling. KDVM are established in Municipalities.


Lower Secondary Education School Leaving Certificate - Apolytirio Gymnasiou (Απολυτήριο Γυμνασίου)

Lower secondary school graduates are awarded a title called Apolytirio Gymnasiou (Lower Secondary School Leaving Certificate). This certificate includes information on the final mark, as well as the analytical grades per course that the pupil has achieved and it is a pre-required for the entrance in Lykeio (Upper Secondary Education).


Lower Secondary School - Gymnasio (Γυμνάσιο)

Compulsory Secondary Education is offered at the lower secondary school (Gymnasio), day (Imerisio Gymnasio) and evening (Esperino Gymnasio). The enrollment age of pupils in grade A of Gymnasio is 12 years. Attendance in Gymnasio is compulsory, as long as the student has not exceeded 16 years of age.

Attendance is of three-year duration for Imerisio Gymnasio (day lower secondary school) and of four-years for Esperino Gymnasio (evening secondary lower school). Gymnasia (Lower Secondary Schools) offering training and preparation for a specific vocational orientation are Mousika Gymnasia (Music Lower Secondary Schools), Kallitechnika Gymnasia (Art Lower Secondary Schools), Ecclesiastika Gymnasia (Ecclesiastical Lower Secondary Schools) and the Tmimata Athlitikis Diefkolinsis Gymnasiou (Athletic Facilitation Classes in Lower Secondary School). In addition, Gymnasia operate either applying experimental curricula, such as Peiramatika Gymnasia (Model Experimental Lower Secondary Schools), or they are addressed to pupils with specific educational needs, such as Gymnasia Diapolitismikis Ekpaidefsis (Cross-cultural Secondary Education Schools), Meionotika Gymnasia (Minority Secondary Education Schools), Gymnasia Eidikis Agogis kai Ekpaidefsis (Lower Secondary Schools of Special Education and Training), Epangelmatika Gymnasia Eidikis Agogis (Special Vocational Schools). There is also the Scholeio Evropaikis Paideias (European Education School), operating in Heraklion, Crete.


Master’s Degree - Metaptyhiako Diploma Spoudon (Μεταπτυχιακό Δίπλωμα Σπουδών)

Master’s Degree (Metaptyhiako Diploma Spoudon) is awarded to all students having completed successfully a 2nd cycle study programme (post-graduate) in any Higher Education Institution.


Minority Schools - Meionotika Scholeia (Μειονοτικά Σχολεία)

Minority Schools (Meionotika Scholeia) operate to cover the educational needs of Muslims residing in the geographical region of Thrace (Pomak, Roma and Turkish origin).There are 173 Minority Schools, 169 of which are primary education schools. The curriculum of Meionotika Scholeia is bilingual and is carried out both in the Greek and the Turkish language.


Pan-Hellenic Exams - Panelladikes Exetaseis (Πανελλαδικές Εξετάσεις)

Written exams at national level which give the right of access to Higher Education, to students who have received the Apolytirio Lykeiou (Upper Secondary School Leaving Certificate).


Pre-primary school - Nipiagogeio (Νηπιαγωγείο)

Pre-school education offered in pre-primary school (Nipiagogeio) is part of Primary Education. Nipiagogeio accepts children at the age of four and five years; attendance, however, is compulsory only for children at the age of five years.

The All day Nipiagogeio operates in parallel to the ordinary Nipiagogeio with a broadened daily schedule. The aim is to fully prepare the child for Primary School, support working parents and reinforce the role of state care in order to eliminate educational/social discrimination.


Primary School - Dimotiko Scholeio (Δημοτικό Σχολείο)

Primary Education has six-year duration. Six-year attendance at Primary School (Dimotiko Scholeio), one year prior attendance at Pre-primary School (Nipiagogeio) and the subsequent three-year attendance at Lower Secondary School (Gymnasio) constitute the ten year compulsory education in Greece. There is regular timetable Dimotiko Scholeio, All-Day Dimotiko Scholeio with an extended schedule, as well as All Day Dimotiko Scholeio implementing a single reformed education programme. Organisational variations of Dimotiko Scholeio include Peiramatiko Dimotiko Scholeio (Model Experimental School), Meionotiko Dimotiko Scholeio (Minority Primary School), Dimotiko Scholeio Diapolitismikis Ekpaidefsis(Cross-Cultural Primary Education School), Dimotiko Scholeio Evropaikis Paideias (European Education School), Dimotiko Scholeio Eidikis Agogis kai Ekpaidefsis (Special Education Primary School).


Reception Classes and Tutorial Courses - Taxeis Ypodochis kai Frontistiriaka Tmimata (Τάξεις Υποδοχής και Φροντιστηριακά Τμήματα)

Reception Classes and Tutorial Courses (Taxeis Ypodochis kai Frontistiriaka Tmimata) are addressed to foreigners and repatriated pupils and take place respectively within and outside the school timetable. Taxeis Ypodochis kai Frontistiriaka Tmimata are embedded in the Institution of ZEP. This scheme allows school units in the country to provide additional teaching support to students who do not possess the necessary knowledge of the Greek language.


Remedial Teaching - Enischytiki Didaskalia (Ενισχυτική Διδασκαλία)

Remedial Teaching (Enischytiki Didaskalia) is applied in primary schools and in Lower Secondary Schools (Gymnasia). The institution is available for pupils lagging behind in school performance, not being able to follow and participate effectively in the educational process or for any pupil wishing to improve his/her performance.

In primary school (Dimotiko Scholeio), remedial teaching covers the subjects of Language and Mathematics.

In lower secondary school (Gymnasio), the subjects covered are Language, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Foreign Languages.


School Advisors - Scholikoi Symvouloi (Σχολικοί Σύμβουλοι)

School Advisors (Scholikoi Symvouloi) provide teachers with scientific and pedagogical guidance and support, encourage every effort for scientific research in the field of education and participate in the assessment of the educational work and the teaching staff at schools in their catchment area. Scholikoi Symvouloi operate at Regional Education Directorate level.


School Committees - Scholikes Epitropes (Σχολικές Επιτροπές)

School Committees (Scholikes Epitropes) are municipal legal entities of public law. Scholikes Epitropes are merged into two legal entities, one for Primary Education School units and one for Secondary Education School units (lower and upper). Participation in Scholiki Epitropi is mandatory for School Heads, a representative from the Parents' Association, a pupil representative (for secondary education school units). Scholikes Epitropes are assigned the management of appropriations allocated to cover the operational expenses of Primary and Secondary Education school and of any measure to support management of school units.


Second Chance Schools - Scholeia Defteris Efkairias (SDE) / (Σχολεία Δεύτερης Ευκαιρίας - ΣΔΕ)

Second Chance Schools (Scholeia Defteris Efkairias - SDE) are addressed to citizens above the age of eighteen (18) who have not completed compulsory education, threatened therefore with the risk of social exclusion and marginalization. Through this institution, such population groups are offered the possibility of obtaining a Lower Secondary Education Certificate (Apolytirio Gymnasiou) and smoothly integrate themselves into the social, economic and professional structures.


Teacher Education Faculties - Kathigitikes Scholes (Καθηγητικές Σχολές)

As regards teaching in both compulsory and non-compulsory secondary education, candidate teachers receive initial education at the University Departments across the country providing studies relevant to the cognitive fields included in the secondary education curricula. Such Departments belong to the so-called Teacher Education Faculties (Κathigitikes scholes).


Technological Educational Institute - Tehnologiko Ekpaideftiko Idryma (TEI) / (Τεχνολογικό Εκπαιδευτικό Ίδρυμα - ΤΕΙ)

Technological Educational Institute (Tehnologikο Ekpaideftikο Idryma - TEI) is a Higher Education Institution operating as Legal Entity under Public Law and enjoying full self-administration and academic freedom. TEI is subject to state supervision and is financed by the government. State supervision is carried out by the Minister of Education and Religious Affairs. TEI gives emphasis to high quality education as well as to the applied character of science, technology and arts. In this framework, TEI promotes the development of the appropriate theoretical background together with the development of high standard practice. Compared to University studies, TEI studies have a more applied character. Enrollment at TEI requires successful participation of candidates in Pan-Hellenic Exams (Panelladikes Exetaseis).


University - Panepistimio (Πανεπιστήμιο)

University (Panepistimiο) is a Higher Education Institution operating as Legal Entity under Public Law and enjoying full self-administration and academic freedom. Panepistimio is while it is subject to state supervision and it is financed by the government. State supervision is carried out by the Minister of Education and Religious Affairs. Panepistimio gives emphasis to high quality education according to the demands of science, technology and arts taking into account the international scientific practice and the corresponding professional fields. Enrollment at Panepistimio requires successful participation of candidates in the Pan-Hellenic Exams (Panelladikes Exetaseis).


Vocational Training Institute - Institouto Epangelmatikis Katartisis (IEK) / (Ινστιτούτο Επαγγελματικής Κατάρτισης - ΙΕΚ)

Vocational Training Institute (Institouta Epangelmatikis Katartisis - IEK) aims at providing services of initial and continuing vocational training to formal non-compulsory secondary education graduates, of General (Geniko Lykeio) and Vocational Upper Secondary school (Epangelmatiko Lykeio) and to Vocational Training Schools’ (Epangelmatikes Scholes) graduates. IEK is classified as ISCED 4.


Vocational Training School - Scholi Epangelmatikis Katartisis (SEK) / (Σχολή Επαγγελματικής Κατάρτισης - ΣΕΚ)

Vocational Training School (Scholi Epangelmatikis Katartisis – SEK) provides initial vocational training to graduates of compulsory formal education. SEK comprises A and B Grades, as well as the Apprenticeship Class, for the implementation of the so-called “Workplace Training Programme– Workplace Apprenticeship”. There is Evening SEK (4 years attendance) available as an option to students above the age of 20 years old.


Vocational Upper Secondary Education Leaving Certificate - Ptyhio Eidikefsis / Apolytirio Epangelmatikou Lykeiou – Specialty Degree (Πτυχίο Ειδίκευσης / Απολυτήριο Επαγγελματικού Λυκείου)

By means of intra-school exams, Vocational Upper Secondary School (Epangelmatiko Lykeio) graduates are awarded the following:

  1. A Speciality Degree (Ptyhio Eidikefsis) of level 3, enabling them to be granted a profession practicing license and work in the private or public sector; this degree does not give the holders access to Tertiary Education.
  2. A school leaving certificate (Apolytirio Epangelmatikou Lykeiou), equivalent to the one awarded by the General Upper Secondary School, which offers the holders the following possibilities:
  • To follow Higher Education after taking the national exams (pan-Hellenic exams) on an equal number of subjects as the General Upper Secondary School (Geniko Lykeio).
  • To enroll in Vocational Training Institute (Institouto Epangelmatikis Katartisis), in a specialty corresponding to the one they had selected at school.


Vocational Upper Secondary Education School - Epangelmatiko Lykeio (EPAL) / (Επαγγελματικό Λύκειο - ΕΠΑΛ)

Vocational Upper Secondary Schoola (Epangelmatikο Lykeiο - EPAL) offer vocational non-compulsory Secondary Education, day and evening :

Day Vocational Upper Secondary School (Imerisio Epangelmatiko Lykeio - EPAL): attendance is of 3-year duration and includes Α, Β and C grades. An “Apprenticeship Class” is provided as an option after successful completion of grade C.

Evening Vocational Upper Secondary School (Esperino Epangelmatiko Lykeio - EPAL): attendance lasts for four years. Esperino EPAL is offered as a support structure for working students.