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Greece:Funding in Education

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Overview Greece

Contents

Greece:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Greece:Historical Development

Greece:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Greece:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Greece:Political and Economic Situation

Greece:Organisation and Governance

Greece:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Greece:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Greece:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Greece:Organisation of Private Education

Greece:National Qualifications Framework

Greece:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Greece:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Greece:Funding in Education

Greece:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Greece:Higher Education Funding

Greece:Adult Education and Training Funding

Greece:Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Primary Education

Greece:Organisation of Primary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Higher Education

Greece:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Greece:First Cycle Programmes

Greece:Bachelor

Greece:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Greece:Second Cycle Programmes

Greece:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Greece:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Greece:Adult Education and Training

Greece:Distribution of Responsibilities

Greece:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Greece:Main Providers

Greece:Main Types of Provision

Greece:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Greece:Teachers and Education Staff

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Management and Other Education Staff

Greece:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Greece:Management Staff for Higher Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Quality Assurance

Greece:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

Greece:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Greece:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Greece:Mobility and Internationalisation

Greece:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

Greece:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Greece:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Greece:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:National Reforms in School Education

Greece:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Greece:National Reforms in Higher Education

Greece:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Greece:European Perspective

Greece:Legislation

Greece:Institutions

Greece:Glossary

Primary, secondary and higher education is mainly financed by the State through the Regular Budget and the Public Investments Programme, and less so by non-state resources.

The Regular Budget mainly covers educational personnel payroll expenses and school operational expenses.

The Public Investments Programme covers fixed capital cost expenses, such as real estate purchase, construction and repair of buildings and facilities, procurement and maintenance of laboratories and equipment.  It also covers preparation and design expenses for new educational programmes, scientific research strengthening and in general, support to the overall educational policy.

Based on the Partnership Agreement for the Development Framework (PA) 2014-2010, innovative and development programmes are planned and implemented.  These are financed by 75% from EU resources and by 25% from national resources.  One such programme is the Sectoral Operational Programme "Human Resources Development - Education and Lifelong Learning".  This programme spans many sectors and is financed by a single fund (ESF).  It is the main support tool for Greece and, in synergy and complementarity with the other OPs, will contribute to:

  • economic recovery, as it includes comprehensive policies to support the creation of sustainable jobs
  • active inclusion in the labour market, including the inclusion of vulnerable social groups
  • the improvement of the efficacy of the Greek educational system
  • the matching of education, training and lifelong learning with the labour market, with the main aim of limiting and/or eliminating the social consequences of the crisis and/or minimising the cost of high unemployment.

Private expenditure on education covers educational services provided by private schools, operating in parallel to state Primary and Secondary Schools.  It also covers educational services provided by private tutorial institutions offering parallel teaching of school subjects, foreign language courses and other activities, as well as educational services provided by instructors employed by the family for additional teaching.

Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), pursuant to article 16 of the Constitution, are self-governed Legal Entities of Public Law, under the supervision of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs and are financed centrally by the State Budget and the Public Investments Programme on Higher Education.  HEIs assume the responsibility to manage the resources deriving from both the state funding and their assets.  By a Presidential Decree, based on the opinion of the University Senate, it is possible to set up a Special Legal Entity of Public or Private Law aiming at the effective development and management of HEI assets.

Pursuant to Law 4009/2011, as replaced and amended by Law 4386/2016, every HEI in the context of its strategic planning for achieving its mission and its individual targets, draws up a four-year academic development programme within the foreseen limits of the State Budget and the Public Investments Programme for Higher Education.

As far as the economic part is concerned, plannning agreements of Higher Education Institutions specify the following:

  • a) operational costs
  • b) investments
  • c) personnel of every category. 

Higher Education Institutions do not collect tuition fees from their students, by virtue of a constitutional provision, whereby tertiary education in Greece is public and University attendance free of charge.

In the financial year 2016 the following appropriations were earmarked in the Regular Budget to fund Education, at current prices, while actual spending in 2016 is as follows:

TOTAL APPROPRIATION

Year

Regular Budget Expenditure for the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs (in mn. Euros)

2016

Budget: 4,274,000,000

2016

Spending: 4,273,042,349

Source: Ministry of Education (December 2015), Ministry of Finance (Execution: 28 July 2016).

The distribution of costs at each educational level is described in more detail below:

I. FUNDING AND BUDGET FOR PRIMARY EDUCATION

For financial year 2016, the following appropriations were earmarked in the Regular Budget to fund primary education, at current prices:

Year

Primary Education, Regular Budget

2016

1,414,905,000

Source: Ministerial Decision No. F.1/384/198362/Β1/07-12-2015 ("67Χ34653ΠΣ-ΦΞΔ"&page=0 ) "Appropriations of Regular Budget funds of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs for the fiscal year 2016".

II. FUNDING AND BUDGET FOR SECONDARY EDUCATION

For financial year 2016, the following appropriations were earmarked in the Regular Budget for funding secondary education, at current prices:

Year

Secondary Education, Regular Budget

2016

1,542,996,000

Source: Ministerial Decision No. F.1/384/198362/Β1/07-12-2015 ("67Χ34653ΠΣ-ΦΞΔ"&page=0 ) "Appropriations of Regular Budget funds of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs for the fiscal year 2016".

III. FUNDING AND BUDGET FOR HIGHER EDUCATION

In the financial year 2016, the following appropriations were earmarked, at current prices, in the Regular Budget to fund tertiary education (Universities and Technological Education Institutions):

Year

Higher Education, Regular Budget

2016

819,842,000

Source: Ministerial Decision  F.1/384/198362/Β1/07-12-2015 ("67Χ34653ΠΣ-ΦΞΔ"&page=0 ) "Appropriations of Regular Budget funds of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs for the fiscal year 2016".

IV. FUNDING AND BUDGET FOR LIFELONG LEARNING

In the financial year 2016, the following appropriations were earmarked, at current prices, in the Regular Budget to fund lifelong learning:

Year

Lifelong Learning, Regular Budget

2016

10,695,000

Source: Ministerial Decision No. F.1/384/198362/Β1/07-12-2015 ("67Χ34653ΠΣ-ΦΞΔ"&page=0 ) "Appropriations of Regular Budget funds of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs for the fiscal year 2016".

Early Childhood Education and Care provided by the municipal Child and Infant/Child Centres, as well as by respective private structures, falls outside the limits of the system of compulsory education.  For the purposes of financing the salaries of the personnel employed at municipal nurseries, as well as covering their operating expenses, eligible Local Government Bodies of degree A are granted a monthly regular grant from the Ministry of Interior Affairs.  The exact amount is formed on an annual basis depending on the amounts available for distribution.

A particularly important programme in the field of Early Childhood Education and Care is “Harmonisation of Family and Professional Life” of the Operational Programme “Human Resources Development”.  This provides care to infants, toddlers, children and adolescents with disabilities in corresponding structures, which may belong to both municipalities and public and private sector legal entities and businesses in the private sector or non-profit companies.  The aim is to facilitate the access of benefiting mothers to employment and have their family and professional lives harmonised, by providing care services for children and dependents.