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Greece:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

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Overview Greece

Contents

Greece:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Greece:Historical Development

Greece:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Greece:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Greece:Political and Economic Situation

Greece:Organisation and Governance

Greece:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Greece:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Greece:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Greece:Organisation of Private Education

Greece:National Qualifications Framework

Greece:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Greece:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Greece:Funding in Education

Greece:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Greece:Higher Education Funding

Greece:Adult Education and Training Funding

Greece:Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Primary Education

Greece:Organisation of Primary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Higher Education

Greece:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Greece:First Cycle Programmes

Greece:Bachelor

Greece:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Greece:Second Cycle Programmes

Greece:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Greece:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Greece:Adult Education and Training

Greece:Distribution of Responsibilities

Greece:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Greece:Main Providers

Greece:Main Types of Provision

Greece:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Greece:Teachers and Education Staff

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Management and Other Education Staff

Greece:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Greece:Management Staff for Higher Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Quality Assurance

Greece:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

Greece:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Greece:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Greece:Mobility and Internationalisation

Greece:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

Greece:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Greece:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Greece:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:National Reforms in School Education

Greece:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Greece:National Reforms in Higher Education

Greece:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Greece:European Perspective

Greece:Legislation

Greece:Institutions

Greece:Glossary

Pursuant to article 16 of the Constitution, Arts, Science, Research and Teaching are offered for free.  The State is obliged to foster conditions for their development and promotion.

Education is the fundamental mission of the State and its purpose is the moral, spiritual, professional and physical education of Greek people, the development of a national and religious consciousness and the moulding of free and responsible citizens.

Education is provided for free to all Greeks in all grades, at state schools.  The State supports the pupils who distinguish themselves, and those in need of assistance or special protection, according to their abilities.

The years of compulsory education should not be less than nine.

Higher education is provided exclusively by institutions which are legal entities of public law with full self-government.  These institutions are under the supervision of the State, are entitled to financial assistance by the State and operate according to the laws related to their administrative bodies. The establishment of higher education schools by private individuals is prohibited.

Freedom of religious conscience is inviolable.  Article 13 of the Constitution gives citizens a clear legal statement of their civil and political rights that do not depend on one’s religious beliefs. 

The commitment of the State towards a society of equality and egalitarianism (Article  4 of the Constitution) is reflected on the educational system that seeks to avoid preferential treatment and any differentiation among pupils, teachers, schools or areas, other than on the basis of objective criteria.

Reforms in education are currently dictated by a twofold reality: firstly, the rapid changes taking place in the society, epitomized by a shift to the age of knowledge and the digital era, and secondly, the current situation in the country itself.  Any educational reform can be thus understood as these two realities' byproduct.

As part of the wider educational reforms taking place at the moment, a national strategy is implemented for producing a new administrative and governing model, driven by the principles of decentralisation, democracy, democratic participation, transparency, equality, solidarity, mitigation of social inequalities and evaluation.  Evaluation, in particular, is not punitive but it is rather understood as assessment and feedback on the programmes, institutions and teacher performance.  Autonomy, responsibility and accountability are also included in the fundamental principles that aim to enhance these reforms on the governing procedures in the field of education and the school/university curricula.

As defined in Law 1566/1985,the objective of Primary and Secondary Education is to shape students’ cognitive and psychosomatic skills through holistic, harmonious and balanced means for the purpose of assisting the growth of a well-integrated, creative personality, regardless of gender and origin.

In particular, they prepare students:

  • a) to evolve into free, accountable, democratic citizens that defend national sovereignty, the nation’s territorial integrity and democracy, be inspired by the love for man, life and nature and driven by loyalty towards their country and the fundamental principles of orthodox Christian traditions. Their freedom of religious conscience is inviolable.
  • b) to nurture mind and body, their talents, interests and skills. To acquire, through school education, social identity and consciousness, understand and comprehend that mental and manual labour are of equal value.  To stay up-to-date and make good use of the goods provided for by contemporary society and the traditional values of our country, appropriately and for the benefit of humanity.
  • c) to develop creative and critical thinking skills and understand the concept of collective efforts and collaboration in order to act pro-actively and participate responsibly in social progress and the country’s growth.
  • d) to understand the significance of art, science and technology, to respect human values and to safeguard humanity.
  • e) to understand the essence of friendship and adopt a spirit of cooperation with all people and nations, aspiring towards a better, just and peaceful world.

The educational mission of Higher Education Institutions, in accordance with Law 4009/2011, is as follows:

  • a) to produce and transmit knowledge by means of research and teaching, to prepare pupils for the implementation of this knowledge on the professional field and cultivate arts and culture
  • b) to offer higher education and contribute to lifelong learning via modern teaching methods, including distance learning, based on scientific and technological research at the highest possible level of quality conforming to internationally recognised criteria
  • c) to develop the pupils’ critical faculty and skills, to promote the employability of graduates and to formulate the necessary conditions for the emergence of new researchers
  • d) to respond to the needs of the labour market and professional fields, as well as to the country's development needs, and to promote diffusion of knowledge, exploitation of research results and innovation; all these should be performed with dedication to the principles of scientific ethics, sustainable development and social cohesion
  • e) to promote cooperation and mobility, leading to the construction of the European Higher Education and Research Area
  • f) to contribute to the creation of responsible citizens, able to respond to the requirements of all fields of human activities with scientific, occupational and cultural adequacy and responsibility and with respect to the values of justice, freedom, democracy and social solidarity.

The framework law for Lifelong Learning (Law 3879/2010) supports the development of Lifelong Learning through alternative educational routes, the networking of lifelong learning bodies and quality assurance in order to achieve the interconnection of lifelong learning with the labour market, the formulation of integrated personalities and social and economic development, in general.  In recent years, Greece has made continued efforts to improve and enhance quality in the educational system and lifelong learning programmes, whilst focusing on facilitating accessibility for vulnerable social groups at all levels. In particular, the principal objective for the upcoming period is to design education and lifelong learning programmes that will encourage active social engagement and smooth integration into the labour market and tackle school dropouts, particularly with regard to vulnerable groups.