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Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

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Overview Greece

Contents

Greece:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Greece:Historical Development

Greece:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Greece:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Greece:Political and Economic Situation

Greece:Organisation and Governance

Greece:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Greece:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Greece:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Greece:Organisation of Private Education

Greece:National Qualifications Framework

Greece:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Greece:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Greece:Funding in Education

Greece:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Greece:Higher Education Funding

Greece:Adult Education and Training Funding

Greece:Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Primary Education

Greece:Organisation of Primary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Higher Education

Greece:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Greece:First Cycle Programmes

Greece:Bachelor

Greece:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Greece:Second Cycle Programmes

Greece:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Greece:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Greece:Adult Education and Training

Greece:Distribution of Responsibilities

Greece:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Greece:Main Providers

Greece:Main Types of Provision

Greece:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Greece:Teachers and Education Staff

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Management and Other Education Staff

Greece:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Greece:Management Staff for Higher Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Quality Assurance

Greece:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

Greece:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Greece:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Greece:Mobility and Internationalisation

Greece:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

Greece:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Greece:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Greece:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:National Reforms in School Education

Greece:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Greece:National Reforms in Higher Education

Greece:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Greece:European Perspective

Greece:Legislation

Greece:Institutions

Greece:Glossary

Recent education reforms for improving the quality of services for all students have been explicitly oriented towards Special Education.  The main goal of the government’s education policy is to incorporate schools within a teaching community collectively responsible for each student, regardless of any special needs and differences. It assures that, gradually, responsibility for the integration of all persons with special educational needs will not be placed in individual teachers but rather the teaching community as a whole.  Ensuring accessibility of digital learning content and resources regardless of mobility, visual, hearing impairments or other learning disabilities, and supporting the development of infrastructure and services that will facilitate inclusion at general schools for students with disabilities and special educational needs, are the objectives outlined by the new Special Education policies.

The institutional framework for Special Education of individuals with disability and special educational needs, as laid down mainly in Law 3699/2008 and the subsequent complementary Laws 4115/2013  and 4186/2013, foresees, inter alia, the following:

Special Education constitutes an integral part of compulsory and free of charge public education.

The State ensures that public education, free of charge, is provided to disabled individuals of all ages and for all grades and levels of education, including Lifelong Learning, from preschool education up to vocational training in post-school education beyond the 23rd year of their age.

The state is obligated to provide Special Education services in pre-primary, primary and secondary education schools.  The type and degree of special educational needs determine the type and category of the suitable learning environment selected for each student. This is dictated by the fundamental principles of special education, which specify that building productive and positive learning environments is essential for meeting the needs of individual students.

Special Education services include differential diagnosis, diagnosis, evaluation and depiction of the special educational needs, as well as systematic pedagogical intervention with specialised and properly adjusted educational tools and programmes, depending on students’ disabilities and educational needs.  The issues attracting more attention are accessibility, physical and electronic and adjustment of the educational and teaching material, including electronic equipment and software.   

Special Education is offered to mainstream education schools with programmes of joint education, to autonomous Special Education Schools with suitable building infrastructure, and under special circumstances with teaching programmes at home.

Law 4115/2013 has introduced a new way of organising the interdisciplinary support to Special Education.  The dominant support structures to further facilitate integration and joint education in mainstream schools of students with special education needs are: (a) the Diagnostic Educational Evaluation and Support Committee operating at mainstream school level, (b) the Special Education School being converted into a Support Center of a mainstream education schools’ network, as well as (c) the local Differential Diagnosis, Diagnosis and Special Educational Needs Support Centers (Kentra Diaforodiagnosis, Diagnosis kai Ypostirixis Eidikon Ekpaideftikon Anagkon - KEDDY).

The inclusion policy is promoted for all vulnerable groups of student population.  Cross-cultural Education being enshrined by Law 2413/1996 sets the framework for harmonious and effective integration in the general education system of students with educational, social and cultural particularities.  A raft of compensatory and supporting structures are put in place for this purpose, such as: Cross-Cultural Schools (Scholeia Diapolitismikis Ekpaidefsis) and Minority Schools (Meionotika Scholeia), Reception and Tutorial Classes (Taxeis Ypodochis kai Frontistiriaka Tmimata), Remedial Teaching (Enischytiki Didaskalia) and Additional Teaching Support (Prostheti Didaktiki Stirixi), as well as Educational Priority Zones (Zones Ekpaideftikis Proteraiotitas - ZEP); this institution was introduced by Law 3879/2010 for the promotion of equal inclusion in the educational system (particularly in primary and secondary education) of students from areas with low educational and socio-economic indicators.

The strong social dimension of national policy in higher education, as results from the framework Law 4009/2011 and the relevant provisions of Laws 2009/1992, 2909/2001, 3404/2005 and 4186/2013, is mainly illustrated as follows:

  • In broadening the participation of groups with higher exclusion risk from the labour market, by adopting measures such as facilitating access of special population categories to Higher Education Institutions.
  • In supporting all students throughout their studies and particularly those belonging to vulnerable social groups, through a series of educational and social provisions, benefits and facilities. 

Finally, as far as Lifelong Learning is concerned, Law 3879/2010 has instituted structures constituting the National Network for Lifelong Learning (administrative and service provision bodies) with a vital role in supporting adults’ initial and continuing vocational training and general education.