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Greece:Bachelor

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Overview Greece

Contents

Greece:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Greece:Historical Development

Greece:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Greece:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Greece:Political and Economic Situation

Greece:Organisation and Governance

Greece:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Greece:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Greece:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Greece:Organisation of Private Education

Greece:National Qualifications Framework

Greece:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Greece:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Greece:Funding in Education

Greece:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Greece:Higher Education Funding

Greece:Adult Education and Training Funding

Greece:Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Primary Education

Greece:Organisation of Primary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Higher Education

Greece:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Greece:First Cycle Programmes

Greece:Bachelor

Greece:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Greece:Second Cycle Programmes

Greece:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Greece:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Greece:Adult Education and Training

Greece:Distribution of Responsibilities

Greece:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Greece:Main Providers

Greece:Main Types of Provision

Greece:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Greece:Teachers and Education Staff

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Management and Other Education Staff

Greece:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Greece:Management Staff for Higher Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Quality Assurance

Greece:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

Greece:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Greece:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Greece:Mobility and Internationalisation

Greece:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

Greece:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Greece:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Greece:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:National Reforms in School Education

Greece:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Greece:National Reforms in Higher Education

Greece:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Greece:European Perspective

Greece:Legislation

Greece:Institutions

Greece:Glossary

Branches of study

During the first cycle of studies, students attend a study programme that consists of modules that correspond to at least 240 credits and leads to the award of a degree (Titlos Spoudon). The Higher Education degree (University and TEI) is classified at Level 6 of the National Qualifications Framework.

According to the National Qualifications Framework of Higher Education, each programme includes the learning outcomes and the qualifications acquired through the study programme as well as through each module, educational activity, or in-service traineeship.  It entails the credits according to Ministerial Decision F5/89656/B3/13-8-2007, as well as the level of qualifications in correspondence to the National Qualifications Framework, the European Qualifications Framework of Lifelong Learning and the Qualifications Framework of the European Area in Higher Education. The General Assembly or Board of every department is responsible for awarding credits to each educational activity of the programme. In the case of a graduate course, they take into consideration the proposals made by the department’s General Assembly or Board. In the case of postgraduate courses, the proposals made by the General Assembly of Specific Composition are taken into consideration. 

Pursuant to the system established by Law 2525/1997, as amended, supplemented and currently in force, the Faculties and Departments of Universities and Technological Educational Institutes (TEIs) - as well as the Academy of Police Officers, the Military School and other schools falling under the system - are grouped into five (5) disciplinary fields:

  • FIELD 1: Humanities, Law and Social Sciences, including theoretical faculties such as Philology, Law, Sociology, Foreign Languages, etc. (duration of studies: 4 or 5 years).
  • FIELD 2: Science, including Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, etc. (duration of studies: 4 years).
  • FIELD 3: Health Sciences, including the Faculty of Medicine, School of Dentistry, School of Pharmacy, etc. (duration of studies: 4, 5 or 6 years).
  • FIELD 4: Technological Sciences, including the Schools of Architecture, Civil Engineering, etc. schools (duration of studies: 4 or 5 years).
  • FIELD 5: Sciences of Economy and Administration, including the Departments of Economics, Business Administration, Accounting and Finance, etc. (duration of studies: 4 years).

Each Department’s Curriculum corresponds to a field of knowledge related to a science and/or a profession, and leads to a Bachelor's degree. However, the Department’s General Assembly, has recommended that Directions or Specialisations may be incorporated in the degree awarded by the Department.

Admission requirements

Graduates of General Upper Secondary Schools may apply for studying at both Universities (Panepistimia) and Technological Education Institutes (TEIs) (Technologika Ekpaideftika Idrymata). Graduates of Vocational Upper Secondary Schools are divided into the following groups: group A who can only apply for Technological Education Institutes and group B who can apply for both Universities and Technological Education Institutes. 

Graduates of General Upper Secondary Schools and Vocational Upper Secondary Schools, group B acquire apart from the “Apolytirion”, a “Certificate” for access to Higher Education. They participate in the Pan-hellenic Examinations (Panelladikes Eksetaseis), a system which is centrally co-ordinated by the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs. The grade on the “Certificate” is the result of what the pupil has accomplished at the national level examination. 

It is to be noted that according to the new Law 4186/2013, as amended and is in force, a new independent administrative authority is established, under the title "National Examinations Organisation", which is supervised by the Minister of Education, Research and Religious Affairs. It constitutes an executive scientific authority responsible for issues pertaining to the written progression or graduation examinations in General and Vocational Upper Secondary Schools, examinations for the admission to higher education and the operation of the graded difficulty pool of topics, in cooperation with the Institute of Educational Policy.

Entry at the Hellenic Open University is through a public electronic draw among those who have applied. The only prerequisite is that applicants are graduates of Upper Secondary Education.

The procedure differs from that of entry at the Hellenic International University.  An international call for interest takes place through the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs’ website and the Greek Embassies abroad. 

From academic year 2009-2010 graduates of Vocational Upper Secondary Schools have access to both sectors of Higher Education (Universities and Technological Educational Institutes) as follows:

  • Those who select the lessons of group A, are examined at the national level exam in 2 lessons of General Education and 2 lessons of Specialization. 
  • Those who select the lessons of group B are examined at the national level exam in 3 lessons of General Education and 1 or 2 selective courses and 2 lessons of Specialization.
  • Graduates of evening Vocational Upper Secondary Schools (Group A) are only examined in lessons of General Education. 

In the 3rd grade of General Upper Secondary Education, lessons are of General Education, Direction and Optional. They are further categorized according to the mode of examination in those that are examined at school level and those examined at a national level. In both cases the examination is written.  

When the results come out, holders of the “Certificate” may apply for entry at the Departments/Faculties of their choice, in a priority order and in no more than 2 scientific fields. Their success depends on their grade as well as the priority order of applying and the availability in each department. 

For entry in departments where specialized knowledge or skills are a prerequisite candidates must also:  

  • Be examined in the specific fields of their interest in the cases of studying architecture, music, translation & interpretation, foreign languages.   
  • Undergo physical, psychiatric and sports tests in the cases of studying at the Military and Police Academies.  
  • Undergo sports tests in the case of studying Physical Education and Athletics

Candidates also have access to Higher Ecclesiastical Academies through the above-mentioned system for entry in Higher Education Institutions. It is a prerequisite that they are Christians Orthodox, while only male candidates can be accepted to attend the Priestly Study Programme.  

The number of entrants in each Department is based on the principle of “numerous clausus” and is determined every year by the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs.

Since the academic year 2014/15 in accordance with Law 4264/2014, there has been an abolishment of the provision that refers to special cases of students (large families, families with three children, social criteria) who gain entry at a department or faculty of Higher Education, in excess of the specified number of places.

Departments accept a specific number of students belonging in the following categories:

  • Children of families who live abroad and hold an “Apolytirion” from a Greek school.
  • Children of civil servants who serve abroad and hold an “Apolytirion” from a Greek school.
  • Greeks who are graduates of foreign schools.
  • Foreign citizens.
  • Graduates of Upper Secondary Schools (or equivalent) from EU member states, who are not of Greek origin.  
  • Foreign citizens who hold a scholarship.
  • Expatriates holding a scholarship.
  • Greek citizens of the Muslim minority in Thrace.
  • Those who have been distinguished in Balkan or International Olympiads in the fields of Mathematics, Informatics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology or the European Contest for Young Scientists.
  • Those who suffer of grave illnesses.
  • Athletes.

In addition to the above-mentioned categories, HEI graduates can take a special examination which classifies them to study in other Departments. Specifically, the percentage of classification of graduates of University, TEI or equivalent thereto, ASPETE Greece or abroad (recognized by DOATAP) and holders of Higher Education degrees of two year or over two years course of study falling under the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs and other Ministries, is set at 12% of the total number of students entering each academic year in each University department or TEI or ASPETE. The selection of candidates for graduate classification is based entirely on qualifying examinations with subjects of development in three courses. By decision of the Assembly of the Department of the University or TEI or ASPETE, the classified students are exempt from examination of courses or exercises of the curriculum of the Department where they first registered and fully or adequately taught in the Department or Faculty of origin.

It is noted that classes in HEIs may also be attended by students of other Departments as well as citizens who are not students. Those who are interested may enroll at the secretariat and hold an ID which gives them the right to attend; however, they do not have the right to participate in the exams and hold a degree.

TABLE 1: Number of students admitted in HEIs (Universities and Technological Education Institutions) for the academic years from 2006-2007 to 2014-2015:

Academic Year Number of admitted students
2006-2007 79.057
2007-2008 79.120
2008-2009 83.200
2009-2010 84.230
2010-2011 84.690
2011-2012 74.440
2012-2013 76.094
2013-2014 69.288
2014-2015
70.305

Source: Ministry of Education 2014, Directorate for Examinations and Certifications, 2013.

As regards the academic year 2011/12, there was a reduction in the number of posts, so, along with the elimination of the transfers, first introduced was a specific number of seats for each department or faculty for each class beyond the normal number of places, i.e. for families with three children or many children, to limit multiple households, for health reasons of the family of candidates, etc. The number of entrants remained at the same level for the academic year 2012/13. This reduction was the result of efforts to maintain at the same basic levels the number of entrants to the central Universities and TEI and in all institutions.

As regards the academic year 2013/14, there was a further reduction in the number of places due to the restructuring and rationalization of the Academic Map of the country which was implemented with the "ATHENA" plan. Despite this, it is worth noting that for the specific academic year the number of entrants in Higher Education Institutions fell by 8.94% even though the Departments of Universities were reduced by 25%. Specifically, in Universities it increased compared to the previous year by 4.76% while in TEI it fell by 28.1%.

During the academic year 2014-2015, the admission quotas are amost equal to last year's; however, without the admission quotas of regulations that were abolished and according to which, special categories (large families, social criteria) were admitted in a specific number of places at Higher Education Departments or Schools.

The criteria determining the number of entrants for the academic year are related to parameters such as:

  1. The average annual number of places and entrants for at least five years
  2. The number of places and entrants during the last years
  3. The proposals of the Institutions, where applicable

Curriculum

The content of a Curriculum is drawn up by a special committee consisting of at least 5 professors active in the specific scientific field. The committee is set up by the dean (or the Director of the Faculty in TEIs), the director of the department and in the case of collaboration among different departments of the same University, it is set up by the relevant deans. The content of the Curriculum is approved by the rector (or the President of TEI) who takes into consideration the proposal of the assembly. The Internal Regulation defines matters that have to do with the setting up of the committees. It also defines the preconditions and the procedure for the annual changes in the Curricula.

It is possible that a first cycle Curriculum may include and recognize the credits of modules that have been materialized in other HEIs of the country or abroad. A protocol on cooperation between the 2 Institutions concerned is drawn in this case. 

First cycle Curriculums include compulsory lessons for learning at least one foreign language.

A Curriculum goes to the Hellenic Quality Assurance and Accreditation Agency, before the dean (or the director of the faculty in TEIs) assigns its application to the department.

The Curriculum includes the titles of the compulsory lessons, the compulsory by choice and the optional lessons, their content, the teaching hours which include every form of didactic work, while it also makes clear the time sequence and the interdependence of the lessons. It also includes the qualifications and specialisations that the educational staff need to possess in order to achieve the learning outcomes set.

According to the National Qualifications Framework of Higher Education each Curriculum also includes the learning outcomes and the qualifications acquired through the programme as a whole and through each lesson, educational activity or in-service traineeship. It includes the credits according to Ministerial Decision F5/89656/B3/13-8-2007, the level of qualifications and their equivalence with those of the National Qualifications Framework, the Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning and the qualifications Framework for the European Higher Education Area. The competent authority for awarding credits to each educational activity of the Curriculum is the deanery of the relevant faculty (or the directorate of the faculty in TEIs), based on the proposal of the department’s assembly. In the Translation - Interpretation Departments and the Departments of Foreign Languages and Literature (English, French, German, Italian and Spanish Language and Literature), many courses (especially the compulsory ones) are taught in the respective target language.

Many HEIs, within the context of their educational and general training aims, provide students with the opportunity to learn one or more languages throughout their studies, as these are necessary tools for their academic development. They also offer students linguistic preparation intensive courses for undergraduate and postgraduate studies abroad.

Study programmes can be taught in whole or in part, exceptionally, in a foreign language, based on a decision of the rector (or President of TEI), issued upon proposal of the deanery of the faculty concerned (or of the faculty directorate in TEIs) and approved by the Senate of the institution (or Assembly of TEI). The organisational charter of each institution may also provide for the organisation of programmes for the teaching of the Greek language to foreign students or for the teaching of foreign languages to Greek students, beyond those required for the acquisition of their degree.  According to a legislative regulation (Law 4316/2014), new Department of first cycle studies are constituted in HEI with a curriculum, where the teaching is conducted in the respective foreign language thoughout.  Only foreign students that are not nationals of Member-States of the European Union and do not possess a Greek Lyceum Graduation Certificate shall be admitted in these Departments.

For completing a graduate Curriculum at the Hellenic Open University and acquiring a degree students must successfully attend and be examined in at least 12 modules. Students may choose from 1 and up to 3 modules per year (minimum duration of studies is 4 academic years).

Teaching Methods

Teaching is divided in lessons with 1 semester duration.  According to Law 4009/2011, the definition of teaching is: a) the integral teaching of a module, b) the integral teaching of modules that intend to go deeper to small student groups, c) laboratory work, clinics and in-service traineeship ofstudents, d) the supervision of projects and dissertations and e) organizing seminars or other similar activities aiming at the consolidation of what has been taught.

In tertiary education, teaching methods and teaching aids are established by the educational institutions.

The Organisational charter of each institution includes specific provisions related to the organisation and operation of cycles of study, as well as the terms and conditions for the application of distance learning methods.

Teaching and learning is assisted by respective textbooks or other supporting material distributed to students free of charge.  In many cases, this task is also assisted by audio-visual aids, new technologies, and electronic teaching aids made available by each Department as material and technical infrastructure.

Every semester includes at least 13 whole weeks of teaching. In exceptional cases this period may be extended so as to complete the required minimum weeks of teaching. The extension may not exceed 2 weeks and requires a decision by the rector (or of the TEI president) which is based on a proposal by the deanery (or of the TEI faculty directorate). If for any reason the number of didactic weeks is less than 13, then the module in question is considered as not having been taught and students cannot be examined. In the case of examination, for any reason, the result is not considered valid and the grade is not calculated.  

The Hellenic Open University achieves its objectives through emphasis on high quality learning material, especially adapted in terms of format and content, so as to allow high quality distance self-learning and regular student assessment. This material might be in printed (books, notes, assessment forms), audio-visual, or electronic form (multimedia, Internet, etc.).

As regards Undergraduate Curricula, studies are carried out based on the “distance education" method, including per module:

  • Five meetings of tutors with students.
  • Four to six compulsory assignments sent to the tutor.
  • Distance counseling between tutors and students.
  • Student laboratory practice in the Hellenic Open University laboratories in Patras (if provided in the Curriculum).
  • Final examinations, and in the case of failure, repeat examinations for every Thematic Unit, simultaneously conducted throughout the country.

Students may attend the Curriculum of their choice wherever they live in Greece or abroad. Tutor-student meetings are held in the following cities: Patras (seat of the Institution), Athens, Thessaloniki, Iraklion, Ioannina, Xanthi, Piraeus and Larisa.

Progression of Students

Students register at the beginning of each semester during dates set by the deanery. They also declare the modules they chose to attend. If a student fails to register for 2 consecutive semesters, then he is automatically disqualified. After the normal period of study equal to the minimum number of semesters necessary for the award of diploma, according to an indicative curriculum of the Faculty plus four semesters, students may enroll in semesters, only if they meet the conditions for continuing the study established by the Organization of each Institution.

Students’ progression in Higher Education is carried out according to the internal regulation of operation of the respective institution.

There are three examination periods during each academic year: a) January-February, b) June, and c) September.  The number of weeks for holding the examinations is defined by the Organisation of the Institution.

Students are examined at the end of each semester (winter and spring) in the courses taught in the respective semester, as well as during the September examination period, in the courses taught in both semesters. Under recent legislation (Law 4316/2014), during the academic year 2014-2015, students of Higher Education Institutions have the opportunity to take part in the examinations in February and June 2014 in all courses that they failed in the previous semesters, regardless if they are taught in the winter or spring semester.  The same applies for the academic year 2015-2016 (Law 4327/2015).

Students failing a compulsory course are required to repeat it in a subsequent semester, given that attendance and successful examination in courses set as compulsory by the Curriculum is a pre-requisite for the degree award. Students failing an optional course should either repeat it in the following semesters or replace it with another optional course, so that they cover the necessary number of courses specified by the Curriculum.

If the course that the student failed has been defined as a prerequisite for other courses, s/he has no right to declare that s/he will select other courses depending from it.

If a student fails more than 3 times to pass a module, he may apply for a special examination by a three member committee consisting of professors of the Institution, who must be of the same or a similar scientific field. The decision rests with the dean. The tutor of the module may not be part of this committee. In the case of a new failure, the student may or may not continue with his/her studies, according to the terms and conditions and the Organisation of the Institution. These include the maximum of times a student may sit an exam. 

In order to pass a course - whether compulsory or optional - students must, as a general rule, receive a pass mark of five out of ten. This mark results either solely from the mark received on the written and/or oral exams at the end of each semester, or from a combination of the mark received on examinations and the mark resulting from the students’ participation in various educational activities (laboratory exercises, tutorials, written assignments, etc).

Students complete their studies and receive their degree when they have passed the number of courses specified in the Curriculum and have accumulated the required credits number.

In both Universities and Technological Education Institutions (TEIs), special care is being taken as regards the oral examination of students who can prove that they have suffered of dyslexia before their entry into higher education. The procedure is defined by the Organisation of each institution.

Employability

Students may undertake internships in the public or private sector, within the country or abroad, provided that this activity is included in the relevant programme of study. The terms and conditions of the internship are regulated in the Organisational Charter of the institution, including specific provisions to facilitate the participation of disabled students in a manner that is equitable to any other student.

Furthermore, Higher Education Institutions take special measures to facilitate studies, especially for working students. To this effect, there is a joint Decision of the Ministers of Education and Labour, that regulates mandatory leaves to working students during examinations. In addition, students who work at least 20 hours a week may be registered as part-time students.

Specifically in TEIs, in addition to the Academic Staff undertaking the main teaching and research tasks, various special Associates can also be part of the TEI Academic staff thus conveying their know-how and practical experience to students and contributing to more efficient and effective vocational counseling.

Finally, according to Law 4009/2011, higher education institutions host Innovation and Career Offices, which constitute a communication bridge between the institution, the labour market, the economy and the production and their main aim is:

a) to support and facilitate the safeguarding of intellectual property of the Institution and members of the relevant academic community,

b) to promote communication and collaboration between researchers and members of the academic community with productive institutions to build upon the research produced in HEI,

c) to provide students and graduates of the Institution with information on issues and career guidance services supporting them both in identifying aptitudes and skills as well as in issues of career selection, further study and in finding work,

d) to organize the practicum of students,

e) to organize seminars, conferences, counseling, contacts with mentors for students and graduates of the Institution on issues of innovation and social action, and generally to promote innovative ideas of students that can be used in professional or social activities and

f) to organize all sorts of activities to promote innovation and entrepreneurship among the academic community, notably innovation competitions.

Within the Innovation and Career Office, further discrete units may operate, as for example a Liaison office, an Innovation and Entrepreneurship office, a Practical Training office, Mediation Office, etc.

Student Assessment

Student performance is assessed by the Higher Education Institutions Academic staff, whereas the methods of assessment depend on the nature of each subject. The student's grade is determined by the course tutor, who holds the written and/or oral examinations, or organizes laboratory or clinical exercises, as well as assignments throughout the semester. The evaluation of the students, which is a necessary part of the learning process, is continuous: it lasts throughout the semester and covers all courses of the Curriculum.

In order to pass a course students must, as a general rule, receive a pass mark of five (5) out of ten (10). This mark results either solely from the mark received on the written and/or oral exams at the end of each semester, or from a combination of the mark received on examinations and the mark resulting from the participation of students in various educational activities (laboratory exercises, tutorials, writing of assignments, etc). In certain cases, the dissertation grade may be multiplied by a specific coefficient.

Students complete their studies and receive their degree when they have passed the number of courses specified in the Curriculum and have accumulated the required credits. To obtain a first cycle degree, students must successfully complete at least one foreign language course or demonstrate proof of knowledge of a foreign language. The method of calculating the final grade is defined by decision of the Minister of Education and Religious Affairs.

Certification

Each Higher Education Institution Department grants a degree, possibly with distinct directions/specializations. There is no particular procedure for the certification of the degrees. They are signed by the Rector and the respective Department’s President and Secretary, and deemed valid and official certificates.

The degree sets forth the Higher Education Institution, the Faculty, the Department and, if any, the Specialization/Direction, as well as the graduate’s exact grade and the corresponding qualitative description (5.00-6.49 "Good"; 6.50-8.49 "Very good"; and 8.50-10.00 "Excellent").

The Diploma Supplement, stipulated by a 2005 law (Law 3374/2005), is attached to all graduate or postgraduate degrees and provides information on the studies’ content and status.