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Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

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Overview Greece

Contents

Greece:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Greece:Historical Development

Greece:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Greece:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Greece:Political and Economic Situation

Greece:Organisation and Governance

Greece:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Greece:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Greece:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Greece:Organisation of Private Education

Greece:National Qualifications Framework

Greece:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Greece:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Greece:Funding in Education

Greece:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Greece:Higher Education Funding

Greece:Adult Education and Training Funding

Greece:Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Primary Education

Greece:Organisation of Primary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Higher Education

Greece:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Greece:First Cycle Programmes

Greece:Bachelor

Greece:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Greece:Second Cycle Programmes

Greece:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Greece:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Greece:Adult Education and Training

Greece:Distribution of Responsibilities

Greece:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Greece:Main Providers

Greece:Main Types of Provision

Greece:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Greece:Teachers and Education Staff

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Management and Other Education Staff

Greece:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Greece:Management Staff for Higher Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Quality Assurance

Greece:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

Greece:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Greece:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Greece:Mobility and Internationalisation

Greece:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

Greece:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Greece:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Greece:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:National Reforms in School Education

Greece:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Greece:National Reforms in Higher Education

Greece:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Greece:European Perspective

Greece:Legislation

Greece:Institutions

Greece:Glossary

Pupil Assessment

According to the Cross-thematic Curriculum Framework and the Curricula (Ministerial Decision 21072a/C2/28.02.2003), the assessment of the progress of pupils is a continuous and advisable process which is embedded in the teaching procedure.  It consists of the assessment of the pupils' performance in each subject of the curriculum of the relevant study year and it follows specific criteria which result from the educational goals of each subject.  The pupils' assessment concerns not only the acquired knowledge, but also the development of competences, as well as the formation of attitudes, values and behaviours.  The process of assessment ought to be characterised by transparency, reliability, objectivity and validity, while the aims and the criteria of the assessment ought not only to be clear, but also to be communicated to the pupils on time.  The pupils' assessment concerns their performance, as well as their progress in comparison to their prior performance.

A number of approaches, which are oriented according to the goals, the content and the teaching method of each study subject, as well the age, the educational needs and the experiences of the pupils, are used during the assessment process.  At the same time, the characteristics of the pupils, the individual way and rhythm of progress, the stage of linguistic development, as well as the opportunities each child has in his social and family environment are taken into consideration. 

The assessment process in Primary Education appears in a number of forms, which can be briefly presented as follows:

Initial or Diagnostic Assessment

Initial or Diagnostic Assessment is mainly performed at the beginning of the learning procedure and especially at the beginning of the school year or at the beginning of a course, and it aims at defining the level of prior knowledge and experience, the pupils’ interests, but also at detecting possible difficulties that the pupils might be facing.

Formative or Gradual Assessment

This type of assessment is performed during the teaching procedure and it consists of a continuous daily practice, which has a mainly informative nature and aims at the assessment of the progress of each pupil towards the fulfillment of certain educational goals, but also at the forming of decisions regarding possible modifications in the planning of the class or the teaching method, in order to help pupils achieve the desired goals. 

Final or Overall Assessment

This type of assessment is used to summarise and offer feedback, in order to assess and compare the level of pupil achievement compared to specified and anticipated pedagogical and educational goals.  The Final Assessment is performed after the completion of a course or of the syllabus and its aim is to systematically assess the result of the teaching procedure and the pupil’s personal effort.

Assessment techniques are directly correlated with the particular characteristics, the aims and content of each subject.  They are connected to the basic organisational-communicative situations that ensure the educational content of assessment.  They aim at exploring the pupils’ cognitive achievements, whilst emphasising their ability to acquire, manage and apply knowledge in various ways.  At the same time they bring out the communicative skills and highlight the learning profile of each pupil.  Assessment techniques, which at the same time consist of teaching practices and apply to all subjects, include:

  • written questions, with a duration of a few minutes or up to an academic hour
  • written or oral exams of various types
  • short written essays
  • short questions, written or oral
  • summarisation of content, written or oral
  • judgement tests, which are more appropriate for the assessment of deeper understanding of the content of a unit or a book
  • combinations of different techniques

Detailed information on the assessment of each subject taught in Primary Education can be found on the Cross-thematic Curriculum Framework website at the address: http://www.pi-schools.gr/programs/depps/

The assessment of pupils during their attendance of Primary Education Schools is performed per subject and falls within the exclusive responsibility of the teacher or the teachers of the relevant class or class department, as well as of the specialised subjects teachers, for subjects like Foreign Languages, Music, Arts, Physical Education, etc. 

According to Presidential Decree 8/1995, the assessment of the progress of each pupil is based on the following:

  • Everyday oral examination and overall participation of the pupil in the educational procedure and in relevant school activities.
  • The pupil’s performance, as far as the assessment criteria are concerned.  These criteria form a fundamental part of the school programme and are included in the teaching material.  The criteria pertaining to the assessment of pupils in the last two years of Primary Education Schools (Grades E and F) may be extended so as to include more complicated questions, which could relate to more than one subjects.
  • The work that the pupil prepares at home or in school. 

At the end of every term - there are three (3) in total during the school year - pedagogical meetings are carried out, in which the entire teaching personnel of each school unit participates, concerning the assessment of the progress of pupils in each year, but also in the school as a whole. Within ten (10) days from the end of the term and upon the school head's decision, a meeting with the parents or the guardians of the pupils is held, where they receive the individual “Performance Assessment” which informs them of the results of the assessment as well as the performance of the pupil during the relevant term.  The briefing of pupils which, in this case, is carried out in groups per class or per school, falls within the responsibilities of the teacher or the teachers of the class and is effectuated outside of teaching hours, at time when most parents can participate. 

In Grade A, the first “Performance Assessment” is handed to the parents at the end of the second term (Presidential Decree 121/1995).  Meanwhile, at this year as well as at the grade (Grades A and B) the assessment is only descriptive and this is how it is marked on the performance assessment of the pupils.  The Descriptive Assessment allows teachers to fully inform the pupils as well as their parents of the results of each pupil’s efforts at school, of each pupil’s abilities and aptitudes, as well as of any possible weaknesses in specific fields. 

In Grades C and D, in the Performance Assessment, apart from the descriptive assessment, the following grading scale is used: “Excellent” (A), “Very Good” (B), “Good” (C), “Almost Good” (d), while in Grades E and F the following additional grading scale is used, which is expressed both verbally and arithmetically: “Excellent” (9-10), “Very Good” (7-8), “Good” (5-6), “Almost Good” (1-4).  Pupils with severe cognitive difficulties are assessed with “Almost Good”.  These pupils, as well as pupils attending grades A and B, who are facing similar difficulties, benefit from Remedial Teaching programmes.

At the end of the academic year, pupils who have attended Grades A, B, C, D and E' and provided that they fulfil the promotion requirements (as outlined in the following section) are awarded a 'Progress Certificate, while pupils who have attended Grade F are awarded a Leaving Certificate. On the Progress Certificates awarded at the end of grades A, B, C, D and E, only the word “Promoted” is written, without any grades, while on the Leaving Certificate, apart from the word “Promoted”, the word form of the grade is also written (“Excellent”, “Very Good”, “Good”, “Almost Good”) as well as the equivalent arithmetic symbol which consists of the average yearly performance grade of the pupil.  Obtaining the Progress Certificate is a prerequisite for the enrollment of the pupil in the next year.

Progression of Pupils

According to Presidential Decree 121/1995, pupils attending Grades A and B progress to the next grade, as long as the teacher of the class believes that they can respond to the daily oral assessments, to the assessment criteria included in the teaching material and the work assigned to them either for completion at school or at home, and that they can participate in the learning procedure and other school activities.  Otherwise, they are required to repeat the same grade. 

Pupils attending Grades C and D progress to the next grade, so long as the majority of the final average grades of the subjects attended are other than D.  Otherwise, they are required to repeat the same grade. 
 
For pupils attending Grades E and F, the yearly promotion grade per subject consists of the average of their grades in all three terms, as found on the progress assessments of each term.  The general grade of yearly promotion is calculated by adding the grades which correspond to the yearly progress of each subject and then dividing the total sum by the number of the subjects taught.  Pupils attending Grades E and F may progress to the next grade or leave school (in case of graduates), as long as their average grade is four and a half (4.5) and above (10 stands for excellent).  If the general average grade is under four and a half (4.5), the pupil is required to repeat the same grade. 

As far as repeating a grade is concerned, we should note that the majority of educators agree with the view of education scientists, according to which all individuals should be offered the same opportunities to develop to the highest degree every psycho-somatic and mental facet of their personality.  For this reason, the school ought to investigate and point out the cognitive difficulties faced by certain pupils in good time, and to offer them any possible help either within or out of the classroom, via individualised remedial teaching programmes so that these pupils can surpass their difficulties and integrate in their class, in this way minimising the need for repetition of the school year. 

It is self-evident that school year repetition concerns not only the teacher, but also the entire school unit.  Therefore, the cases of pupils who face the possibility of repeating the year are a subject of discussion in special meetings of the teaching personnel, which are carried out following a decision of the school head.  At the same time, the relevant school advisor is informed.  The school advisor deals with each case separately, in co-operation with the teacher of the class and the school’s head, and states his opinion concerning the further progress of the pupil. 

As far as promotion to the next grade is concerned, apart from the required minimum grades as defined in Presidential Decree 121/1995 and presented above, regular attendance for a minimum time period of at least half of the school year is required.  However, in case of justified leave for a time period longer than half of the school year, a pupil can progress to the next grade as long as, upon agreement of their parents, the pupil undergoes and succeeds in a relevant examination within the first ten (10) days of June or the first fifteen (15) days of September. 

Promotion to the next year equals automatic enrollment of the pupil to the next grade of primary education.

Certification

Pupils successfully graduate from primary education provided that the General Average Grade of their performance, which is calculated according to the average grade of their performance per subject in all three terms - the procedure is fully presented in the above section - equals at least four and a half (4.5) or above, where 10 equals “Excellent”.  Pupils who graduate from primary education successfully are awarded a Primary School Leaving Certification, known as “Leaving Certificate”.  The Primary School Leaving Certification is provided by the school unit the pupil has graduated from and it is considered an official public document of the Hellenic Republic.  It is signed by the school head who bears the responsibility along with the deputy school head and the teacher or teachers who, all together, are considered administrative officials of the relevant school unit.  The Primary School Leaving Certification is drafted upon completion of the school year, according to the provisions in force for all Primary Education Schools of the Hellenic Republic.  It bears the national logo of the Hellenic Republic, the name and stamp of the school unit issuing it, as well as that of the Regional Directorate of Primary Education in which the school is adherent, and the date of issue.  Leaving Certificates are issued exclusively for school use, while Proof and Certificates of Study are issued freely and are intended for use outside the school. 

As far as content is concerned, the “Leaving Certificate” bears the picture of the pupil and, under the title of the school, the details of the pupil - full name, father’s and mother’s name, place/ prefecture/ date of birth/ Registry number (for boys) or Municipal Roll number (for girls)/ nationality and religion. 

On the Primary School Leaving Certificate appears, apart from the word “Graduate”, the number as well as the equivalent word form of the General Average Grade of yearly performance, “Excellent” (9-10), “Very Good” (7-8), “Good” (5-6). 

The Primary School Leaving Certificate is a prerequisite for the pupil’s acceptance into Lower Secondary Education Schools, while enrollment is automatic.