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Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

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Contents

Greece:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Greece:Historical Development

Greece:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Greece:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Greece:Political and Economic Situation

Greece:Organisation and Governance

Greece:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Greece:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Greece:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Greece:Organisation of Private Education

Greece:National Qualifications Framework

Greece:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Greece:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Greece:Funding in Education

Greece:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Greece:Higher Education Funding

Greece:Adult Education and Training Funding

Greece:Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Primary Education

Greece:Organisation of Primary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Higher Education

Greece:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Greece:First Cycle Programmes

Greece:Bachelor

Greece:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Greece:Second Cycle Programmes

Greece:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Greece:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Greece:Adult Education and Training

Greece:Distribution of Responsibilities

Greece:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Greece:Main Providers

Greece:Main Types of Provision

Greece:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Greece:Teachers and Education Staff

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Management and Other Education Staff

Greece:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Greece:Management Staff for Higher Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Quality Assurance

Greece:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

Greece:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Greece:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Greece:Mobility and Internationalisation

Greece:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

Greece:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Greece:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Greece:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:National Reforms in School Education

Greece:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Greece:National Reforms in Higher Education

Greece:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Greece:European Perspective

Greece:Legislation

Greece:Institutions

Greece:Glossary

Pupil/Students Assessment

In accordance with Presidential Decree 46/2016, student assessment is used for the continuous improvement of the management and day-to-day running of schools and is an integral part of the instruction and learning process.  In order to conduct assessments, schools have to use a set of techniques and approaches:

  • Diagnostic Assessment is carried out at the start of a school year in order to record prior student performance and inform lesson planning and instruction.
  • Formative assessment is conducted during the learning process in order to determine if learning objectives specified by the current curriculum for each subject have been met. The ultimate purpose is to produce feedback that will facilitate the instruction process and the learning outcomes.
  • Assessment of knowledge and skills needs to be reliable, comparable and consistent. This is achieved through summative assessment.

General Lyceum subjects are arranged into the following Groups:

Day General Lyceum Grade Α Subjects are split into three (3) groups:

  • Group A includes all General Education subjects tested through written examinations.
  • Group B includes all Elective subjects tested through written examinations.
  • Group C includes subjects not tested through written examinations i.e. Research Project and Physical Education.

 Day General Lyceum Grade Β Subjects are split into three (3) groups:

  • Group A includes all General Education subjects tested through written examinations.
  • Group B includes all Track subjects tested through written examinations.
  • Group C includes subjects not tested through written examinations i.e. Research Project and Physical Education.

 Day General Lyceum Grade C Subjects are split into three (4) groups:

  • Group A includes all General Education subjects tested through written examinations.
  • Group B includes all Track subjects tested through written examinations.
  • Group C includes all Elective subjects tested through written examinations.
  • Group D includes the subject of Physical Education which is not tested through written examinations.

Student assessment is conducted for each subject separately and under the responsibility of the instructor who teaches it. Summative assessment is conducted at the end of the school year. It summarises oral performance for each subject together with results achieved in written promotion (grades 1 and 2) and school-leaving (grade 3) examinations taken by the students after the end of the 2nd quarter.   More specifically:

Oral Performance

Oral scores summarise student performance during all quarters in relation to:

  • classroom participation,
  • enthusiasm and interest demonstrated for the subject concerned,
  • performance in written classroom tests. Only one (1) one-hour written test (taken during the 1st quarter) is administered during the course of the school year. It tests a limited part of the syllabus and is conducted upon short notice to the students. If necessary, and due to objective reasons, one-hour written tests may also be held during the 2nd quarter. Apart from one-hour written tests, students are also assessed through shorter, five (5) to fifteen (15) minute tests. These are used to test daily classroom lessons and are supplementary to oral assessments. They include a range of short questions and are conducted without prior notice.
  • homework or school exercises
  • combination-creative essays assigned for the subject concerned. The assessment of these essays counts towards positive student performance achieved during the respective quarter. These essays may be individual or group, and aim to nurture creativity and the spirit of research.  Each student shall complete one essay during the course of the school term for one of the subjects tested through written examinations in grades 1 and 2. 

At the end of each quarter - each school term is divided into two (2) quarters - and when grades have been finalised and recorded, guardians/parents are updated on student performance, diligence, attendance and behaviour, and receive the Individual Progress Report.

Written Promotion and School-leaving Follow-up Assessments

Written promotion and school-leaving classroom examinations administered in General Lyceums that deliver all subjects (excluding Research Project and Physical Education), are conducted at the end of the programme taught during the 2nd quarter.  These tests assess the knowledge and skills attained by students during the term as a whole.  Written promotion and school-leaving tests are two-hour long.

Questions for these tests are produced jointly by the instructors of all classes teaching the same subject at the same Lyceum grade, they are common for all classes of the same grade and have to be approved by the Lyceum Principal.

With regard to General Lyceum subjects tested through written promotion and school-leaving examinations, subject to assessment is two third (2/3) of the total syllabus. It is not possible to assess less than half and more than 2/3 of the syllabus. 

Teachers are responsible for selecting and properly defining the syllabus content that will be assessed.  When a subject is taught by more than one teacher, these teachers must work together in order to produce content for assessment.  This content is then submitted to and approved by the Principal. It is announced to the students five (5) working days before the final lesson. 

Syllabus content for the assessment of subjects tested at a national level for entry into Tertiary/Higher Education is specified by the Minister of Education, Research and Religious Affairs until the end of September, at latest, and upon opinion issued by the National Examinations Organisation and recommendation produced by the Institute of Educational Policy.

Questions for these tests are based on each subject’s assessment content. The latter is determined by the Ministry, for the school term concerned.  Questions are similar to the ones included in school textbooks and in line with the guidelines issued by the Institute of Educational Policy. Questions shall cover the largest possible assessment content and must be of escalating difficulty. Students are obliged to answer all questions.

Grading Scale

The grading scale used for calculating student performance on all subjects ranges from 0 to 20 and comes with the following descriptions:

"Fail"                 0 - 5

"Poor "              5.1 - 9.4

"Fair"                9,5 – 13

"Good"             13,1 – 16

"Very Good"     16,1 – 18

"Excellent"       18,1 – 20

The written parts of promotion and school-leaving examinations are marked on a scale of 0-100 (whole numbers only) and the final mark of the written part is reduced to a scale of 0-20 (may be decimal to one place).

Oral test results are administered in the form of whole numbers.  The Average of the oral scores achieved during both quarters is the total oral performance grade (may be one place decimal) achieved for each subject for the school term as a whole.

Promotion and school-leaving grades and General Average may be decimals to one place.

The annual student performance grade for all General Lyceum subjects assessed through written examinations is the Average of the annual oral performance score and the respective written tests score (may be decimal to one place).

The annual performance grade for track subjects is the Average of the track subjects (may be decimal to one place).

For subjects not assessed through written examinations, the annual performance grade is the annual oral performance grade.

General Average (may be decimal to one place) is based on the Average of the annual performance grades of all subjects assessed through written examinations, including the Research Project (if applicable).  

The annual performance grade of subjects not assessed through written examinations is recorded on the School-Leaving Certificate (Apolytirio) or similar proof of graduation as well as the official records.

Progression of Pupils/Students

Students may be promoted to the next grade or leave school (graduate) when two (2) requirements, as listed below, are met at the same time:Minimum Average andSufficient Attendance.

Minimum Average

Under Presidential Decree 46/2016 on the promotion of Day General Lyceum grade A and B students, general average has to be a minimum of nine point five (9,5). The latter is calculated from the Average annual performance grade of all subjects assessed through written examinations, including Research Project (if applicable).

Day General Lyceum grade C students can receive a school-leaving certificate when the general average is a minimum of nine point five (9,5). The latter is calculated from the Average annual performance grade of all subjects assessed through written examinations.

For Day and Evening General Lyceum students (at any grade) who have failed to achieve the general average required (nine point five - 9,5), repeat tests are administered in September of the same year, in the manner of the ordinary promotion and school-leaving examinations, for subjects with a lower than nine point five (9,5) average score. If students fail September’s repeat examination, they have to re-attend the same grade.

For Day General Lyceum grade C students who do not wish to repeat the grade they have failed, there is an option to sit the school-leaving examinations of the following or any other year, without attending the respective grade. In this case, they are assessed, through oral and written tests, on the same subjects and content used for the assessment of Day GEL grade 3 students.

Sufficient Attendance

According the aforementioned Presidential Decree, another necessary prerequisite for the promotion or the graduation of pupils in all grades of the General Lyceum is their adequate attendance during the relevant academic year. The attendance of all pupils is characterized as adequate or inadequate by means of an act by the Teachers’ Board the day courses end, based on the total number of the absences of each pupil in conjunction with the annual oral performance thereof in all courses.

Pupils whose attendance is considered as inadequate are obliged to repeat their attendance of the same grade. Hence, the issue of whether a pupil is considered worthy of being promoted or is required to repeat the grade, depends on the provisions of the applicable legislation. The possible involvement of the parents in taking such decision is not provided.  

Certification  

Pupils who successfully graduate from the Lyceum are awarded a studies degree which is called Lyceum Graduation Certificate.

The Graduation Certificate indicates both in words and figures the pupil’s detailed grades per course during the school year, as well as the general degree of annual performance, which corresponds to the general average of the grades in the courses separately which constitutes the General Graduation Degree, which may also include a fraction. Such degree is also accompanied by the following classifications: "Fair", "Good", "Very Good", "Excellent", whereas apart from the General Graduation Grade and the detailed grades, it also states the direction and the circle the pupil attended in grade C’, as well as their conduct and behavior throughout the school year. The graduates of Day General Lyceums who do not participate in the Pan-Hellenic Exams in the year of their graduation, are awarded a Certificate of Gradation, which states that it was acquired in this manner.    

The Lyceum Graduation Certificate is issued by the school unit from where the pupil graduated, which bears the signature of the Principal, as the responsible person, as well as the signatures of the Deputy Principal and the members of the Teachers’ Board, who collectively constitute the governing bodies of the relevant school unit. The Lyceum Graduation Certificate is drafted after the issuance of the results for each year of graduation, on the basis of the relevant provisions that are universally valid for and applicable to all the Lyceums in the Greek territory. It bears the emblem of the Hellenic Republic, the name and seal of the school unit issuing it, as well as that of the Regional Directorate of Secondary Education, under which the school falls, as well as a protocol number and a date. Graduation Certificates are issued only once and only for school use, whereas the Studies Degrees and Certificates are issued without limitation, yet they are destined for extracurricular use.

With regard to its content, the Graduation Certificate bears the photograph of the pupil, whereas under the title of the school and the type of the studies degree there are the personal details of the pupil -based on the details mentioned in the ID Card or the Passport or the Certificate of Marital Status of the pupil- such as their name and surname, father’s and mother’s name, their date of birth, the Municipal Register Number, their nationality and religion.

Holders of  an Upper Secondary School Leaving Certificate are presented with the following possibilities:

  • To pursue their studies in Tertiary Education if they manage to get the marks required for the Faculty of their preference; this results from the performance at school level and the marks they obtain in the exams at national level (pan-Hellenic exams). 
  • To enroll in Vocational Training Institutes to obtain specialization.
  • To take part in competitions for their recruitment in the public or private sector.
  • To join the labor market without specialization.

Those who receive an Upper Secondary School Apolytirion without having participated in the Pan-Hellenic exams, have the right to access Higher Education only if they take the required written exams of the last year lessons conducted on a Pan-Hellenic level, any other year except the year of their graduation.