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Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

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Overview Greece

Contents

Greece:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Greece:Historical Development

Greece:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Greece:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Greece:Political and Economic Situation

Greece:Organisation and Governance

Greece:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Greece:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Greece:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Greece:Organisation of Private Education

Greece:National Qualifications Framework

Greece:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Greece:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Greece:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Greece:Funding in Education

Greece:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Greece:Higher Education Funding

Greece:Adult Education and Training Funding

Greece:Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 4 years

Greece:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 4 years

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:Primary Education

Greece:Organisation of Primary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Greece:Assessment in Primary Education

Greece:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Greece:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Greece:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Greece:Higher Education

Greece:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Greece:First Cycle Programmes

Greece:Bachelor

Greece:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Greece:Second Cycle Programmes

Greece:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Greece:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Greece:Adult Education and Training

Greece:Distribution of Responsibilities

Greece:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Greece:Main Providers

Greece:Main Types of Provision

Greece:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Greece:Teachers and Education Staff

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece: Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Greece:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Management and Other Education Staff

Greece:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Greece:Management Staff for Higher Education

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Greece:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Quality Assurance

Greece:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Greece:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Educational Support and Guidance

Greece:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Greece:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Greece:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Greece:Mobility and Internationalisation

Greece:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Mobility in Higher Education

Greece:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Greece:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Greece:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Greece:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Greece:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Greece:National Reforms in School Education

Greece:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Greece:National Reforms in Higher Education

Greece:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Greece:European Perspective

Greece:Legislation

Greece:Institutions

Greece:Glossary

Primary and Secondary Education

At a local level (prefecture) the responsibility for the management of school education lies with the Directorates of Primary and Secondary Education which have their headquarters in the capital of the prefecture and are governed by the respective Regional Education Directorate. A Director is the head of the Education Directorates.

The Directors of the Primary and Secondary Education have the overall responsibility for the administration and control of the operation of the schools in their area of responsibility.

At Prefecture level

  • Regional Service Councils of Primary Education (PYSPE) and
  • Regional Service Councils of Secondary Education (PYSDE) also operate, being staffed by the Regional Directors of Primary and Secondary Education upon recommendation of the relevant Directors of Primary and Secondary Education,  and being in charge of teachers’ professional status issues.
  • Other decentralised services of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs that are subject to the relevant Regional Primary/Secondary Education Department are:
  • The School Units of Primary and Secondary Education
  • The Career Guidance and Counseling Centers (KESYP).
  • Youth Counseling Centers (SSN).
  • The Natural Sciences Laboratory Centers (EKFE).
  • The Information and New Technology Centers (KEPLINET).

For the schools within the school district of a specific Municipality, the following structures are in place:

Municipal Education Committee formed in every Municipality or Community and consisting of representatives from the Municipality, the Parents Association, School Heads, representatives from the productive forces and teachers' trade unions. The Committee makes proposals to the Mayor at the Municipal Council on issues regarding the optimal organisation of schools in their area, allocation of appropriations for operational expenses in schools, the abolition or merging of schools, the construction, repair and maintenance of school buildings.

School Committees being municipal or community legal entities and each covering one or more state schools of Primary or Secondary Education, depending on the local needs, as such are estimated by the Local Government Organisation. Participation in school committees administration is mandatory for the School Head, a representative from the Parents' Association, and should there be any, a pupil representative. School Committees are assigned the management of appropriations allocated to cover the operational expenses of Primary and Secondary Education schools and of any measure to support administrative management of school units.

The Municipalities are also responsible for State Nurseries and Kindergartens, pursuant to Law 2880/2001, which operate as legal entities of public law under a Standard Operating Procedure determined centrally (Joint Ministerial Decision 16065 / 17-4-2002, Ministry of Interior Affairs, Public Administration and Decentralisation, Ministry of Health and Welfare). The provisions of this regulation are the minimum conditions of operation of all municipal nurseries and kindergartens. The Municipal Nursery and Kindergartens are funded by the Municipalities they belong to and the money paid by the parents.

At school level (Pre-primary, Primary and Secondary Education), recent reforms are oriented towards a significant decentralisation of powers and strengthening the role of the school.

School units are administered by the School Head, the deputy head teacher and the Teachers' Assembly.

The School Head is located at the top of the school community and bears the administrative and scientific-pedagogical responsibility of the place. He is responsible for the smooth school operation, the coordination of school life, the adherence to the laws, circulars, service orders and the enforcement of teachers assembly decisions. He is responsible in collaboration with the Association of Teachers for the planning of the educational work of the school, the assessment of the educational work of the school and the preparation and implementation of integrated action plans to improve the school.

The Teachers' Assembly, consisting of all teachers and chaired by the school head, is a collective body for the tracing of guidelines, the optimum application of educational policy and the smooth school operation. It meets regularly, prior to the beginning of the school year and once at the end of every term and extraordinarily, when deemed necessary. The meetings of this collective body take place within the school timetable and outside the teaching hours. The Heads of Education Directorates, School Advisors and pupils' representatives (in Secondary Education) may participate in its meetings on specific issues of their concern.

A School Board operates in every state school. It consists of the Teachers' Assembly, the members of the Board of the Parents' Association, Board of Directors and the representative from the Local Government in the School Committee. The School Council helps in planning the school activity, effective support of the educational work and the best organisation and operation of the school. The President of the school council is the principle of the school. The School Board meets compulsorily three times a year, and exceptionally, at the request of the Principle or the bodies participating in the School Council. More information on the administration bodies of the schools can be found in section 10.1 "Administrative Staff of Preschool and School Education“.

Higher Education

As laid down in article 16 of the Constitution and Law 4009/2011, Higher Education institutions (AEIs) are self-governed Legal Entities of Public Law, under the supervision of the Ministry of Education, Research and Religious Affairs. The Higher Education Institutes establish academic freedom in research and teaching, and free expression and exchange of ideas.

The specific principles and rules of operation, the organisation and individual objectives of each institution, within the framework set by the current institutional arrangements, are defined by the Organisation and the Internal Operating Rules of the Institution.

Every University consists of Faculties and every Faculty has various Departments covering related scientific fields; each Faculty is mainly responsible for the coordination. Faculties constitute an Institution’s fundamental units and cover a series of relevant scientific fields. They supervise Departments which are the basic operational academic units corresponding to the scientific field leading to a degree. The Departments are further distinguished in Sectors corresponding to smaller and distinct parts of a broader scientific field of a Department, if such a field is broad enough and the number of the basic teaching research staff is sufficient.

Laws 4009/2011 and 4076/2012 as amended and in force, make significant changes with regard to their autonomy and internal governance of the Higher Education of Institutes. They introduce major reforms, such as the establishment of the Councils in the operation of Higher Education Institutes, financial autonomy and accountability of institutions, the procedures of four-year programming, the obligation of publicity and transparency, self-evaluation of educational work and the internationalisation of curricula.

As described in detail Chapter 11 "Quality Assurance" with Law 3374/2005, a single, nationwide, ongoing evaluation process is established in Higher Education, for the recording, analysis and systematic evaluation of teaching and research work, curricula and other services of Higher Education Institutions.

Higher Education Institutes assume the responsibility for the management of resources deriving from state funding and their own assets.

Schools constitute an institution’s fundamental units and cover a series of relevant scientific fields. They supervise Departments, which comprise the basic educational academic units of the Institution. The Departments are further distinguished in Sectors corresponding to smaller and distinct parts of a broader scientific field of a Department, if such a field is broad enough and the number of the basic teaching research staff is sufficient. The workshops, clinics and museums are governed by the Schools, as defined in the Institution’s organization

The administrative bodies of AEIs exist on the levels of Institution, School and Department. According to Law 4009/2011, as amended by Law 4076/2012, the administrative bodies of an Institution are:

  • The Council,
  • The Rector
  • The Senate, consisting of the Rector, the Deans and the Presidents of Departments. 

The administrative bodies of a School are:

  • The Dean,
  • The Deanery, consisting of the Faculty’s Dean, the Presidents of Departments and one students’ representative of the faculty (without voting right) and
  • The Faculty’s General Assembly, comprising the Professors and the faculty’s serving lectors, one representative per category of the members of the Special, Laboratory and Special Technical Teaching Staff.

Finally, the administrative bodies of a Department are:

  • The President,
  • The Department Assembly comprising the Professors and the Department’s serving lectors, one representative per category of Teaching Staff as well as two representatives of a Department’s students (one undergraduate and one post-graduate student). The Department’s General Assembly is the main administrative body whereby the teaching and research policy is drawn up, democratic control is exercised over the entire operation of each university Department.

and provided that Sectors have been formed,

  • The Director of the Sector,
  • The General Assembly of the Sector.

The Technological Educational Institutes (TEI), making up Higher Education along with Universities are self-governed Legal Entities of Public Law, under the supervision of the Ministry of Education. Their operation and organisation are determined by Law, while specific issues are provided for in the internal Regulation of Operation of every Institution.

The TEI administrative bodies are the following:

  • The Board,
  • The President and
  • TEI Assembly.

At Faculty level, administration bodies are:

  • The Faculty Director,
  • The Faculty Administration
  • The General Assembly

The administration bodies at the level of Department are:

  • The General Assembly
  • The Council
  • The Heads

Lifelong Learning

The country's municipalities, administrative bodies of Lifelong Learning at local level, play an important role as they activate the network of Lifelong Learning bodies in their areas. They assume responsibility for offering the municipal citizens accurate, relevant, high-quality, easily accessible programmes associated with the local, and the wider environment. As provided in Law 3879/2010, the Municipality shall prepare, within the local development programmes, the local Lifelong Learning programme, based on the National Lifelong Learning Programme and the corresponding regional Lifelong Learning programme. The local Lifelong Learning programme consists mainly of investments, programmes or individual general adult education actions and general implementation actions of the public lifelong learning policy at a local level.

The Lifelong Learning Centers are set up and operate in accordance with Law 3879/2010, in the interested Municipalities. Specifically, the units engaged in Lifelong Learning responsibilities of the municipalities establish Lifelong Learning Centers, which implement education programmes of General Adult Education.

At the level of educational unit, besides Lifelong Learning Centers , bodies which provide of Lifelong Learning are, inter alia, the Vocational Training Schools (SEK), Vocational Training Institutes (IEK), Second Chance Schools (SDE). The administration of the above is exercised by:

a) The Director,

b) The Deputy Director and

c) The Teachers’ Assembly.

The Director and the Deputy Director are seconded teachers of secondary education with two-year (2) tenure. The selection of the Director and the Deputy Director is carried out based on a decision by the Secretary General for Lifelong Learning. The process and the selection criteria are determined by a decision of the Minister of Education, Research and Religious Affairs.  The director is responsible to adhere to the laws, the circulars and the decisions issued by the competent administration bodies for prompt and reliable communication and cooperation with the Ministry’s Services (central and regional), etc. The director is the disciplinary head of all above lifelong learning structures and does not assume teaching duties. The Deputy Director assists the Director in exercising his/her duties and replaces him/her.

The Teachers’ Assembly is made up of teachers who serve in the unit under any employment relationship. The Director chairs teachers’ assembly, while the Board’s competence is to contribute to laying down the directions for educational policy application at the level of lifelong learning structures, to ensure smooth operation thereof and to pedagogically account for any issue related to studies.

The teaching staff of Vocational Training Schools, Vocational Training Institutes (IEK), Second Chance Schools and Lifelong Learning Centers may encompass:

  • Secondary and primary education teachers,
  • Adults’ Teachers,
  • Members of the Special Teaching Personnel (EEP) and the Special Auxiliary Personnel (EVP).