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Germany:Higher Education

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Overview Germany

Contents

Germany:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Germany:Historical Development

Germany:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Germany:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Germany:Political and Economic Situation

Germany:Organisation and Governance

Germany:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Germany:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Germany:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Germany:Organisation of Private Education

Germany:National Qualifications Framework

Germany:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Germany:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Germany:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Germany:Funding in Education

Germany:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Germany:Higher Education Funding

Germany:Adult Education and Training Funding

Germany:Early Childhood Education and Care

Germany:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Germany:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Germany:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Germany:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Germany:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Germany:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Germany:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Germany:Primary Education

Germany:Organisation of Primary Education

Germany:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Germany:Assessment in Primary Education

Germany:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Germany:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Germany:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Germany:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Germany:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Germany:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Germany:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Germany:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Germany:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Germany:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Germany:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Germany:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Germany:Higher Education

Germany:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Germany:First Cycle Programmes

Germany:Bachelor

Germany:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Germany:Second Cycle Programmes

Germany:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Germany:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Germany:Adult Education and Training

Germany:Distribution of Responsibilities

Germany:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Germany:Main Providers

Germany:Main Types of Provision

Germany:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Germany:Teachers and Education Staff

Germany:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Germany:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Germany:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Germany:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Germany:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Germany:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Germany:Management and Other Education Staff

Germany:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Germany:Management Staff for Higher Education

Germany:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Germany:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Germany:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Germany:Quality Assurance

Germany:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Germany:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Germany:Educational Support and Guidance

Germany:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Germany:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Germany:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Germany:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Germany:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Germany:Mobility and Internationalisation

Germany:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Mobility in Higher Education

Germany:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Germany:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Germany:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Germany:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Germany:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Germany:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Germany:National Reforms in School Education

Germany:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Germany:National Reforms in Higher Education

Germany:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Germany:European Perspective

Germany:Legislation

Germany:Institutions

Germany:Bibliography

Germany:Glossary

The tertiary sector includes, first and foremost, the various different types of institution of higher education and, to a limited extent, establishments outside the higher education system. Thus, in addition to institutions of higher education, some Länder also have Berufsakademien, which offer an alternative to higher education in the form of courses qualifying to practise a profession for those who have completed the upper level of secondary education and gained a higher education entrance qualification. The Fachschulen and the Fachakademien in Bayern are also part of the tertiary sector.

General objectives

Teaching and study are to prepare students for a profession in a certain sphere of activity, imparting to them the particular knowledge, skills and methods required in a way appropriate to each course so as to enable them to perform scientific or artistic work and to act responsibly in a free, democratic and social state governed by the rule of law. These purposes of study are common to all types of higher education institution.

Thus, the mandate bestowed by the legislator, in line with the traditional principle of the unity of teaching and research, is to provide professional training to students in a way that directly involves scientific and academic research and artistic development. Whilst the unity of teaching and research applies to all institutions of higher education, a distinction may be drawn between the functions of UNIVERSITIES and other types of institutions of higher education in that university education is traditionally closely linked to basic and theoretical research.

COLLEGES OF ART AND MUSIC prepare students for artistic professions and teaching of music and art. Teaching and studying are closely related to the other functions of the colleges, i.e. to promote art through the development of artistic forms and means of expression and through the free pursuit of art.

The characteristic features of the design of the courses of study and the organisation of teaching and studying at FACHHOCHSCHULEN are the particular emphasis on practical application and the closer links with the requirements of the professional world. The semesters spent outside the institutions to gain practical experience, known as Praxissemester, are a vital feature. The teaching staff and course contents at Fachhochschulen are linked with applied research and development projects, which are characteristic of this type of institution.

As part of training at state or state-recognised Berufsakademien (professional academies) students receive academic training at Studienakademien (study institutions) and, at the same time, practical career training in a training establishment.

The aim of the continuing vocational training provided at Fachschulen is to enable skilled workers usually with job experience to take on management functions in firms, enterprises, administrations and institutions, or to independently perform responsible tasks.

Specific legislative framework

The legal basis of higher education in Germany is provided by the legislation on higher education of the Länder (Hochschulgesetze), as well as the legislation regarding colleges of art and music and the legislation regarding Fachhochschulen of the Länder as far as these types of institution are not included in the general Higher Education Acts.

As part of concurrent legislation (Art. 72 of the Basic Law), the Federation is responsible for the fields of admission to higher education institutions and degrees from higher education institutions. However, the Länder have been granted the power to enact their own provisions in deviation from the relevant federal laws. The Higher Education Acts of the Länder describe the general objectives of higher education institutions as well as the general principles underlying the system of higher education, study, teaching and research, admission, membership and participation, as well as the staff of institutions of higher education. As a rule, the regulations apply to all institutions of higher education, including privately-maintained establishments.

Training at Berufsakademien is governed by the Berufsakademie laws in force in the individual Länder and by the Ausbildungsordnungen (training regulations) and Prüfungsordnungen (examination regulations) of the relevant Ministry of Science or the Berufsakademie itself..

Continuing vocational education at Fachschulen is regulated by education legislation and by the training regulations and examination regulations of the individual Länder in particular.