Germany:Educational Support and Guidance

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Germany

Contents

Germany:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Germany:Historical Development

Germany:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Germany:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Germany:Political and Economic Situation

Germany:Organisation and Governance

Germany:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Germany:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Germany:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Germany:Organisation of Private Education

Germany:National Qualifications Framework

Germany:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Germany:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Germany:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Germany:Funding in Education

Germany:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Germany:Higher Education Funding

Germany:Adult Education and Training Funding

Germany:Early Childhood Education and Care

Germany:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Germany:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Germany:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

Germany:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Germany:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Germany:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

Germany:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Germany:Primary Education

Germany:Organisation of Primary Education

Germany:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

Germany:Assessment in Primary Education

Germany:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

Germany:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Germany:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

Germany:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

Germany:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

Germany:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Germany:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Germany:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Germany:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Germany:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Germany:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Germany:Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Germany:Higher Education

Germany:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Germany:First Cycle Programmes

Germany:Bachelor

Germany:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Germany:Second Cycle Programmes

Germany:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Germany:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Germany:Adult Education and Training

Germany:Distribution of Responsibilities

Germany:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Germany:Main Providers

Germany:Main Types of Provision

Germany:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Germany:Teachers and Education Staff

Germany:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Germany:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Germany:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Germany:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Germany:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Germany:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Germany:Management and Other Education Staff

Germany:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Germany:Management Staff for Higher Education

Germany:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Germany:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Germany:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Germany:Quality Assurance

Germany:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Germany:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Germany:Educational Support and Guidance

Germany:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Germany:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Germany:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Germany:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Germany:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Germany:Mobility and Internationalisation

Germany:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Mobility in Higher Education

Germany:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Germany:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Germany:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Germany:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Germany:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Germany:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Germany:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Germany:National Reforms in School Education

Germany:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Germany:National Reforms in Higher Education

Germany:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Germany:European Perspective

Germany:Legislation

Germany:Institutions

Germany:Bibliography

Germany:Glossary

The promotion of underrepresented social groups in the education system is achieved through a number of measures which aim to overcome social obstacles and enable equal participation.

Specific legislative framework

The right of disabled persons with disabilities to education and training appropriate to their needs is enshrined in the Basic Law (Grundgesetz, Art. 3), in equality legislation, in Book Twelve of the Social Code (Sozialgesetzbuch XII – Sozialhilfe –) and in the Länder constitutions. More detailed provisions are set out in the school legislation (Schulgesetze) of the Länder. The special concerns of students with disabilities are taken into account in the Higher Education Acts (Hochschulgesetze) of the Länder. In many Länder, the appointment of university officers for the concerns of students with disabilities and chronic illnesses is now anchored in law. The regulations on the participation rights differ from Land to Land.

Early childhood education and care

Different offers for education, support and development in early childhood before entering school are available for children with disabilities. The majority of children who receive integration support related to an institution in accordance with the Social Security Code VIII and/or Social Security Code XII or for whom special educational needs have been identified and who attend a day care facility for children will be cared for there along with other children without disabilities.

Special education needs provision in the school sector

The aim of special educational support is to enable children and young people who either have disabilities or face the threat of disablement to exercise their right to a form of schooling, training and education that is tailored to their personal capabilities and needs. Children and young people receive support in the form of individual assistance measures so that they can achieve the highest possible level of integration at school and at work, participate in society and lead an independent life as far as possible. Support for special educational needs in inclusive educational schooling encourages children and youths with and without disabilities to work together.

The development and organisation of special education in the Länder was harmonised by several resolutions adopted by the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder (Kultusministerkonferenz – KMK) and especially by the Recommendations on the Organisation of Special Schools (Empfehlung zur Ordnung des Sonderschulwesens, Resolution of March 1972) and recommendations for the individual types of special education. The Recommendations on Special Needs Education in the Schools of the Federal Republic of Germany (Empfehlungen zur sonderpädagogischen Förderung in den Schulen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Resolution of May 1994) have in recent years initiated important developments aiming to dismantle barriers and promote the equal participation of young people with disabilities in education. In spring 2008 the Standing Conference decided to revise the Recommendations in order to take account of the intentions of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in the Länder inter alia. On 18 November 2010 the Standing Conference adopted a position paper on “Educational and legal aspects in the implementation of the United Nations Convention of 13 December 2006 on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in school education” (Pädagogische und rechtliche Aspekte der Umsetzung des Übereinkommens der Vereinten Nationen vom 13. Dezember 2006 über die Rechte von Menschen mit Behinderungen (Behindertenrechtskonvention – VN-BRK) in der schulischen Bildung). In October 2011 the Standing Conference adopted the decision on inclusive education of children and young people with disabilities in schools (Inklusive Bildung von Kindern und Jugendlichen mit Behinderungen in Schulen). The recommendations are guided by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. They build on the basic positions of the 1994 Recommendations on Special Needs Education in the Schools of the Federal Republic of Germany (Empfehlungen zur sonderpädagogischen Förderung in den Schulen in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland) and set out the framework conditions for increasingly inclusive educational practice in general education and vocational schools. The aim of the recommendations is to enable children and young people to be educated and trained together and to guarantee and develop the standards achieved in special education teaching, advisory and support services.

The recommendations of the Standing Conference apply to pupils with special educational needs, regardless whether support takes place at a mainstream school or at a special education institution. The following recommendations of the Standing Conference on the individual focuses of special needs education are in effect on a complementary basis for the time being, provided that the statements they make do not contradict the above Recommendations. A differentiation is made between eight support priorities:

  • sight
  • learning
  • emotional and social development
  • speech
  • mental development
  • hearing
  • physical and motor development
  • instruction for sick pupils

For the statistical distribution of pupils with special educational needs according to the individual types of special education, please refer to the section on statistics on organisation and governance.

In addition, in June 2000 the Standing Conference has made recommendations on the Education and Teaching of Children and Young People with Autistic Behaviour (Erziehung und Unterricht von Kindern und Jugendlichen mit autistischem Verhalten).

Academic and vocational guidance

School career advice at lower secondary level consists of not only counselling on questions of transferring to other schools and the choice of the further educational path but also advice on study courses leading to a professional qualification in the educational system. It also cooperates with the Employment Agencies in providing career advice for pupils.

The Employment Agencies also offer Careers Information Centres (Berufsinformationszentren – BIZ), facilities where anyone facing vocational or career decisions can find out more for themselves, in particular about training, professional activities and requirements, further education and training as well as developments on the labour market.

Vocational guidance offers for pupils exist in all Länder; in the majority of Länder, vocational guidance is now a firm part of the curricula and guidelines or ordinances.

Higher education

The goal of support measures in university education is to eliminate social obstacles for hitherto underrepresented groups and allow their equal participation. Hitherto underrepresented groups in the German higher education system include women, students with children, students with disabilities and chronic illnesses, children from low-income or educationally disadvantaged origin groups, and students with a migrant background. Support for underrepresented social groups in the educational system is provided through a number of measures.