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Funding in Education

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This topic covers all main aspects of education system funding for each major education level (Early Childhood and School Education, Higher Education and Adult Education).   Some countries break down the information into sub-sections on ECEC, Primary (or Single Structure Education) and Secondary (and Upper Secondary) Education as well as Higher Education and Adult Education.
If you would like country specific information on this topic, please click on the appropriate flag at the bottom of the page.

Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Funding

This section focuses on:
• The main policy goals of public funding
• The role of different bodies in the public financing of educational institutions (government, regional and/or local authorities and any funding agencies or other bodies)
• The different forms of funding mechanisms, such as input-based mechanisms, performance-based funding, negotiated allocations and purpose-specific funding.

Funding of Early Childhood Education and care

Funding of Primary (or Single Structure) Education

Funding of Secondary (and Upper Secondary) Education


Financial Autonomy and Control

This subheading provides information on:
• The extent to which educational institutions are able to acquire and manage different types of resources (e.g. staff, operational resources and infrastructure etc.)
• The accountability of publicly funded educational institutions

Fees within Public Education

This part addresses:
• The extent to which access to public-sector education institutions is free
• Why and under which circumstances fees are charged, to whom, and the amounts involved
• Any differences in fee levels depending on the field or branch of study concerned
• The bodies to which payment is made (e.g. educational institutions themselves, or other bodies)

Financial Support for Learners' Families

Learn about:
• Cash benefits (family allowances)
• Tax relief to cover part of the cost of educating children (tax allowances and exemptions in the case of dependent children)
• Other social benefits (accommodation, meals, transport, healthcare allowances, etc.)

Financial support for Families of pupils with Special Education Needs

Details are provided regarding the specific financial support for families of pupils with Special Educational Needs.

Financial Support for Learners

This part covers: 
• Grants and scholarships, including specific support for mobility
• Loans, including specific support for mobility
• Tax relief to cover part of the costs of education (tax allowances and exemptions)
• Other social benefits (accommodation, meals, transport, healthcare allowances, etc.)

Private Education

Under this subsection you will find explanations about private educational institutions that are entirely financed by individuals or bodies established under private law as well as the private grant-aided sector that is either partially or entirely supported by public funds.

 

Financial Autonomy and Control

This subheading provides information on:

• the extent to which educational institutions are able to acquire and manage different types of resources (e.g. staff, operational resources and infrastructure etc);
• the accountability of publicly funded educational institutions, including how educational expenditure is monitored.

Higher Education and Funding

Funding


• The main policy goals of public funding
• The role of different bodies in the public financing of educational institutions (government, regional and/or local authorities and any funding agencies or other bodies)
• The different forms of funding mechanisms, such as input-based mechanisms, performance-based funding, negotiated allocations and purpose-specific funding.

Financial Autonomy and Control

This subsection provides information on:
• The extent to which educational institutions are able to acquire and manage different types of resources (e.g. staff, operational resources and infrastructure etc.)
• The accountability of publicly funded educational institutions


Fees within Public Higher Education

This part addresses:
• The extent to which access to public-sector education institutions is free
• Why and under which circumstances fees are charged, to whom, and the amounts involved
• Any differences in fee levels depending on the field or branch of study concerned
• The bodies to which payment is made (e.g. educational institutions themselves, or other bodies)

Financial Support for learners' families

Learn about:
• Cash benefits (family allowances)
• Tax relief to cover part of the cost of educating children (tax allowances and exemptions in the case of dependent children)
• Other social benefits (accommodation, meals, transport, healthcare allowances, etc.)

Financial Support for Learners

This section explains:
• Support in the form of grants (differentiated by the concepts of need-based and merit-based grants)
• Support in the form of loans (including the mechanism of the public student loan system)

The interplay of these elements in the national system
• Other social benefits (accommodation, meals, transport, healthcare allowances, etc.).

Private Education

Exclusively private higher educational institutions:
Learn about:
• Financial autonomy and accountability
• Fees
• Financial Support for students and their families

The grant-aided higher education sector:
Learn about:
• Financial autonomy and accountability
• Fees
• Financial Support for students and their families

Adult Education and Training

Funding

This section explains:
• The main policy goals of public funding
• The different forms of funding mechanisms, such as input-based mechanisms, performance-based funding, negotiated allocations and purpose-specific funding

Fees paid by learners

This part shows:
• The extent to which access to public-sector education institutions is free
• Why and under which circumstances fees are charged, to whom, and the amounts involved

Financial support for Adult Learners

• Grants and scholarships
• Loans
• Cash benefits  and family allowances
• Tax relief to cover part of the cost of educating children (tax allowances and exemptions in the case of dependent children)
• Other social benefits (accommodation, meals, transport, healthcare allowances, etc.)

Private Education

Under this subsection the explanations about private educational institutions that are entirely financed by individuals or bodies established under private law as well as the private grant-aided sector that is either partially or entirely supported by public funds can be found.


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