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France:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

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Overview France

Contents

France:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

France:Historical Development

France:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

France:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

France:Political and Economic Situation

France:Organisation and Governance

France:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

France:Lifelong Learning Strategy

France:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

France:Organisation of Private Education

France:National Qualifications Framework

France:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

France:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

France:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

France:Funding in Education

France:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

France:Higher Education Funding

France:Adult Education and Training Funding

France:Early Childhood Education and Care

France:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

France:Primary Education

France:Organisation of Primary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

France:Assessment in Primary Education

France:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

France:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

France:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

France:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

France:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

France:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Higher Education

France:Types of Higher Education Institutions

France:First Cycle Programmes

France:Bachelor

France:Short-Cycle Higher Education

France:Second Cycle Programmes

France:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

France:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

France:Adult Education and Training

France:Distribution of Responsibilities

France:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

France:Main Providers

France:Main Types of Provision

France:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

France:Teachers and Education Staff

France:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

France:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Management and Other Education Staff

France:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

France:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

France:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

France:Management Staff for Higher Education

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Quality Assurance

France:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

France:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

France:Educational Support and Guidance

France:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

France:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

France:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

France:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

France:Mobility and Internationalisation

France:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Mobility in Higher Education

France:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

France:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

France:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

France:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

France:National Reforms in School Education

France:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

France:National Reforms in Higher Education

France:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

France:European Perspective

France:Legislation

France:Glossary

Beyond operating as care centres, the educational mission of ECEC Institutions and services for receiving young children is increasingly recognised, and is developed by professionals working in the field. The latter are generally professional educators: childcare assistants; holders of an “early childhood” CAP, psychologists, and early-childhood educators. They are sometimes assisted by health staff.

At this level of education, it is not a matter of providing school or even pre-school instruction, as is the case with nursery schools, but of supporting children in situations that can contribute to their early learning and to development of the psychomotor independence.

Steering documents and types of activities

Setting aside what concerns children aged two admitted to nursery schools - which come under the Department for National Education – the educational activities of other reception structures for children aged under three years are drawn up by the heads of each structure or service. Those activities are set out in detail in accreditation requests made to the General Council of the département (that latter condition being necessary for the structure to open).

Article R. 2324-29 of the Public Health Code contains recommendations on accreditation requests; in particular, the article indicates that reception establishments and services must, with a view to obtaining accreditation, draw up an “implementation plan” or “service plan” that includes an “educational project” and a “social project”.

Educational plan

That is a document containing, on the one hand, the educational objectives set by the ECEC Institution (e.g. enabling children to feel safe; progress towards independence; awaken children’s intelligence; develop their personality and creativity; establish relationships with others, adults and children, etc.), and on the other hand, the concrete manner in which the structure is organised to attain that objective on a daily basis. To that end, the following is established: fitting out and using areas; organising groups of children; organising activities, as well as the manner of intervening with children on a daily basis, based on activities, needs, and the children’s ages; work and method objectives, the bases of which are common to all members of staff; the means and terms put in place for respecting the position of parents in the educational process; etc.

Social project

The social project contains an explanation of how the ECEC Institution takes account of the geographical, social, economic, and demographic environment of the location where it will operate. For that purpose, the following are taken into consideration:

  • geographical characteristics (sensitive urban areas; rural areas with a low population density, etc.);
  • the characteristics of the population (high rate of unemployment, proportion of immigrants with difficulties relating to language or to social insertion, etc.);
  • the needs and requests of families in respect of opening times and days;
  • neighbourhood resources: a plan to build social housing, a forthcoming business set-up, a large-scale urban renewal project, the arrival of a new bus route, etc.


Those two documents are required, in particular, of collective-care structures, so drawing up an educational plan is also part of conditions for accreditation of nursery assistants.


Teaching Methods and Materials

Each ECEC Institution and service draws up an "educational plan" (see above), and chooses the educational methods and materials to implement that plan, in compliance with health standards set out at national level (Public Health Code, articles R.2324-16 et seq.) There are no national recommendations on the educational approach to be used in most cases, it is a matter of traditional approaches (i.e. distinct from specific approaches like those of Célestin Freinet, Maria Montessori, etc.) that aim at encouraging children’s well-being and early learning: develop their independence, creativity, socialisation, capacity for communication, and psychophysical capacity. Games situations are put in place, either with educators or with other children. Some ECEC Institutionalso organise art-related activities: listening to music and song, drawing, modelling, etc.

In general, ECEC Institution provide the materials used by the children. Parents contribute indirectly to purchasing those materials by paying registration fees. In other cases, e.g. parental crèches, parents share the direct costs of purchasing toys and other materials.