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France:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

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Overview France

Contents

France:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

France:Historical Development

France:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

France:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

France:Political and Economic Situation

France:Organisation and Governance

France:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

France:Lifelong Learning Strategy

France:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

France:Organisation of Private Education

France:National Qualifications Framework

France:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

France:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

France:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

France:Funding in Education

France:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

France:Higher Education Funding

France:Adult Education and Training Funding

France:Early Childhood Education and Care

France:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

France:Primary Education

France:Organisation of Primary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

France:Assessment in Primary Education

France:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

France:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

France:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

France:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

France:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

France:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Higher Education

France:Types of Higher Education Institutions

France:First Cycle Programmes

France:Bachelor

France:Short-Cycle Higher Education

France:Second Cycle Programmes

France:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

France:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

France:Adult Education and Training

France:Distribution of Responsibilities

France:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

France:Main Providers

France:Main Types of Provision

France:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

France:Teachers and Education Staff

France:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

France:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Management and Other Education Staff

France:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

France:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

France:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

France:Management Staff for Higher Education

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Quality Assurance

France:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

France:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

France:Educational Support and Guidance

France:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

France:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

France:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

France:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

France:Mobility and Internationalisation

France:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Mobility in Higher Education

France:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

France:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

France:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

France:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

France:National Reforms in School Education

France:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

France:National Reforms in Higher Education

France:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

France:European Perspective

France:Legislation

France:Glossary


Steering documents and types of activities

Definition of curricula

Pre-primary school curricula, like all school curricula, are defined nationally. Responsibility for their definition falls with the Direction Générale de l'Enseignement Scolaire (DGESCO - Directorate for school education) - one of the Department of Education's Directorates - and results in a consultation process.
Programmes are actually drafted by group of experts set up and steered through by the Department of Education (DGESCO). Members of groups of experts are personally designated for their recognised professional competence. They are chosen by the president of the group, in agreement with the DGESCO, in such a way as to ensure diversity and complementarity in areas of expertise in the group: university researchers to give scientific validity to content and teacher trainers, in-the-field teachers and inspectors who know the diversity of practices and concrete needs.
During the elaboration phase, regular consultations are organised between groups of experts and other partners: teacher representatives, parents, etc.
After all these elaboration and consultation phases, the draft curriculum enters an institutional consultation phase, which, before publication, requires the approval of the Conseil supérieur de l'éducation (CSE). The Minister of Education can decide to receive the opinion of a consultative body, the Haut Conseil de l'Education (HCE). The texts and these opinions are submitted to approval of the minister who, in the event of validation, allows publication of the order instituting this new curriculum in the Journal de la République française (JO) and of its appendix (the curriculum itself) in the Bulletin officiel de l'Education nationale (BO).

Programmes currently applicable in nursery schools are defined in BO hors-série no. 3 of 19 June 2008.

Contents of curricula

Nursery school teachers, framed by the new national curricula dating from June 2008, without restrictive timetables, set out the main fields of activity to be approached, i.e.:

Appropriation of language: at the end of nursery school, children should be capable of:

  • understanding a message and acting or responding relevantly;
  • precisely naming an object, person or action linked to everyday life;
  • formulating an understandable description or question;
  • telling an understandable experience not known to the other person or an invented story;
  • taking the initiative of asking questions or expressing their point of view.


Discovering writing: at the end of nursery school, children should be capable of:

  • identifying the main functions of writing;
  • listening and understanding a text read by the adult;
  • knowing a few heritage texts, fairy tales in particular;
  • producing an oral statement in an appropriate form so that it may be written by an adult;
  • differentiating sounds;
  • distinguishing the syllables of a pronounced word, recognising the same syllable in several statements;
  • matching the words of a short oral statement with a written statement;
  • recognising and writing most letters in the alphabet;
  • matching up sounds and letters;
  • copying in cursive writing, under the guidance of a teacher, short, simple words against which matching letters and sounds have been studied;
  • writing their first name in cursive writing.


Becoming a pupil: at the end of nursery school, children should be capable of:

  • respecting others and respecting rules of collective life;
  • listening, helping, coordinating; asking for help;
  • showing self-confidence; controlling emotions;
  • identifying adults and their role;
  • autonomously performing simple tasks and playing their role in school activities;
  • saying what they learn.


Acting and expressing themselves with their body: at the end of nursery school, children should be capable of:

  • adapting their movements to different environments or constraints;
  • individually or collectively cooperating or opposing;
  • accepting collective constraints;
  • expressing themselves on a musical or other rhythm, with an instrument or not; expressing feelings and emotions by gestures and movement;
  • positioning themselves and moving in space;
  • describing or representing a simple journey.


Discovering the world: at the end of nursery school, children should be capable of:

  • recognising, naming, describing, comparing, tidying and classifying materials and objects according to their qualities and uses;
  • knowing the signs of animal and plant life, linking them to major functions: growth, nutrition, locomotion, reproduction;
  • naming the major parts of the human body and their function, distinguishing the five senses and their function;
  • knowing and applying a few rules of hygiene of body, premises and nutrition;
  • identifying a danger and taking it into account;
  • using references in the day, week and year;
  • linking up events;
  • drawing a circle, a square, a triangle;
  • comparing quantities, solving problems bearing on quantities;
  • memorising the series of numbers to at least 30;
  • stating a quantity by using the oral series of known numbers;
  • associating the name of known numbers with their writing in figures;
  • positioning themselves in space and objects with respect to themselves;
  • positioning within a page;
  • understanding and using identifying vocabulary properly and relations with time and space.


Perceiving, feeling, imagining, creating: at the end of nursery school, children should be capable of:

  • adapting their gestures to material constraints (instruments, media, materials);
  • using drawing as a means of expression and representation;
  • creating a flat or volume composition according to an expressed desire;
  • observing and describing heritage works, building up collections;
  • memorising and interpreting songs, nursery rhymes;
  • listening to a musical extract or production then expressing themselves and taking with others to give their impressions.


Teaching Methods and Materials

In specific nursery teaching, a strong focus is given to environment exploring, handling and play activities. Teachers precisely observe the behaviour and productions of children to help them and adjust their requirements to their acquired skills and needs. The teacher is completely free to choose the teaching method and material (toys, educational games, books, audiovisual material, etc.)

The State has no control at all on the production of school books. The State sets the national curriculum of educational content for all levels and publishers develop teaching material freely on that basis.
There is no national policy concerning school supplies for this level of education.