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France:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

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Overview France

Contents

France:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

France:Historical Development

France:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

France:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

France:Political and Economic Situation

France:Organisation and Governance

France:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

France:Lifelong Learning Strategy

France:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

France:Organisation of Private Education

France:National Qualifications Framework

France:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

France:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

France:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

France:Funding in Education

France:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

France:Higher Education Funding

France:Adult Education and Training Funding

France:Early Childhood Education and Care

France:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

France:Primary Education

France:Organisation of Primary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

France:Assessment in Primary Education

France:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

France:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

France:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

France:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

France:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

France:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Higher Education

France:Types of Higher Education Institutions

France:First Cycle Programmes

France:Bachelor

France:Short-Cycle Higher Education

France:Second Cycle Programmes

France:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

France:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

France:Adult Education and Training

France:Distribution of Responsibilities

France:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

France:Main Providers

France:Main Types of Provision

France:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

France:Teachers and Education Staff

France:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

France:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Management and Other Education Staff

France:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

France:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

France:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

France:Management Staff for Higher Education

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Quality Assurance

France:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

France:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

France:Educational Support and Guidance

France:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

France:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

France:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

France:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

France:Mobility and Internationalisation

France:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Mobility in Higher Education

France:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

France:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

France:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

France:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

France:National Reforms in School Education

France:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

France:National Reforms in Higher Education

France:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

France:European Perspective

France:Legislation

France:Glossary

Curriculum, Subjects, Number of Hours

The LEGT curricula are defined by cycle: determination cycle (second class) and final class (first and ending classes). They "define, for each cycle, the basic knowledge that must be acquired during the cycle as well as the methods that have to be assimilated. They form the national framework within which the teachers organise their teaching, taking into account the learning pace of each pupil." (French Code of Education, Article L311-3).


Definition of Curricula

The LEGT curricula are developed on a national level, according to the same procedure followed for the curricula of the other school education levels.


Contents of Curriula

Determination cycle (second class)

The second general and technological class prepares the pupils for the choice of a series leading to the baccalauréat. A determination class, it provides all of the pupils with a common general culture which still favouring their interest for literary, artistic, scientific or technological studies.
Next to the second general and technological are second special system classes, which correspond to preparation for a very specific diploma: as such sections leading to the baccalauréat on "music and dance techniques" and sections leading to certain technician's diplomas.

Starting with the beginning of the 2010 school year, a new organisation of the second class has been set up within the framework of the reform of the general and technological education lycée. One of the main objectives of the latter is to allow for more fluid programmes in order to make the pupil's choice of orientation less irreversible and allow for corrections to be made to the path. This new organisation calls for:

  • education common to all of the pupils, which provides a common culture
  • 2 required exploratory subjects, including one in the area of economics, and possibly an optional subject.


The common education is:

  • French
  • History-geography
  • Modern language 1 and 2
  • Maths
  • Physics-chemistry
  • Earth and life sciences
  • Physical and sports education
  • Civic, legal and social education.


These represent 23h30 every week, which is 80% of the student timetable total.

The main objectives of the exploratory subjects, lasting 1.5 hours a week (54 hours a year), are:

  • to discover disciplinary fields of knowledge and the associated methods;
  • to prepare the pupil for choices concerning series in first class;
  • to provide information on the curriculums that are possible in the ending cycle in higher education (upper technological sections, preparatory classes, university, etc.);
  • to identify the professional activities that these curriculums can lead to.


The first exploratory subject must be a subject concerning economics. This obligation satisfies the concern of providing all pupils with an economic culture that allows them to understand the major challenges in the world today. Pupils therefore have the choice between two subjects falling in this area: "social and economic sciences" and "basic principles in economics and management".

The second exploratory subject is to be selected from a list including:

  • subjects of a scientific and technological vocation (scientific practices and methods, engineering sciences, sciences and the laboratory, etc.);
  • subjects of a literary vocation (literature and society, languages and cultures of Antiquity (Latin, Greek), ML3);
  • subjects of an artistic vocation (creation and artistic activities).


By derogation, three exploratory subjects (or a single one) can be chosen by pupils who are particular motivated by technologies or special training (applied arts, circus performance, sports).

The second general and technological class is characterised by a high degree of heterogeneity in the population of pupils received. This heterogeneity can be a source of difficulty for many pupils, as shown by the persistence of a high repeat rate coming out of this class (about 15%).
That is why the lycée reform of 2010 has provided for personalised support, which is offered to all pupils within the normal framework of their timetable. This support can take on different forms:


  • support, for those who are experiencing difficulty;
  • going deeper into knowledge or another approach to the subjects studied;
  • methodological assistance;
  • assistance with guidance.


These activities can take the form of interdisciplinary work.

Special Official Bulletin no. 4 of 29 April 2010
Special Official Bulletin no. 9 of 30 September 2010
Special Official Bulletin no. 3 of 17 March 2011


Final class (first and ending classes)

At the end of the second class, the pupil must make a choice concerning orientation, which will lead either to education of the general type or to education of the technological type. More particularly, the pupil must select one of the various "series" that are a part of each of the two paths, with the series being the specific school path that will lead the pupil to sitting a particular type of baccalauréat. The subjects in the curriculum and the timetables vary according to the series chosen. However, certain subjects are common to all of the series:

  • French;
  • Philosophy;
  • Modern languages;
  • History-geography;
  • Physical and sports education.


Note that one of the main objectives in the LEGT reform implemented starting with the 2010 school year is to make the pupil's orientation towards the various series less irreversible allowing corrections to be made to the path. In order to reach this objective, the specialisation of the various paths takes place progressively with a considerable portion left to the common education in the second and first classes.

The general path is divided into three series:

  • the literary series (L);*the economic and social series (ES);*the scientific series (S).


Within each series, pupils follow common education that is proper to the series, but also compulsory and additional subjects. They can acquire different profiles. For example, in the literary series, these profiles are distinguished: "humanities – modern languages", "classical humanities", "humanities-arts", "humanities-maths".

Within the technological path, there are seven series:

  • management sciences and technologies (STG);
  • industrial sciences and technologies (STI);
  • laboratory sciences and technologies (STL);
  • health and social sciences and technologies (ST2S);
  • music and dance techniques (TMD);
  • hotel industry;
  • sciences and technologies of agronomy and living organisms (baccalauréat prepared in the lycées that depend on the Department of Agriculture).


The technological series also provide for many specialties.

The LEGT reform of 2010 also aims to enhance the specificity of the various series in order to put a stop to the hierarchy that characterised them (with the general path having a better reputation than the technological path, and, within the general path, the Scientific series in relation to the other series). In order to achieve this objective, the organisation of the education and the timetables for the subjects are arranged in such a way as to further mark the specificity of each series, with the perspective of continuing studies in higher education. For example, the L series is supposed to become an excellent series for learning modern languages and knowledge of the international.

The specific content, per subject, of the new curricula provided for in the LEGT reform of 2010 are described in:

  • Special Official Bulletin no. 9 of 30 September 2010, concerning the general path;
  • Special Official Bulletin no. 3 of 17 March 2011, concerning the technological path. 

Timetables by subject


Timetable of the Determination cycle – second class 


Timetable of General path ending cycle – first and ending class, Literary series.


Timetable of General path ending cycle – first and ending class, Economics and Social series


Timetable General path ending cycle – first and ending class, Scientific series


Technological path ending cycle – first and ending class

In light of the great variety of specialties in each of the seven series of the technological path, the reader may refer to the internet page of the Department of Education which contains the timetable grids for all of the technological series of the LGT.


Teaching Methods and Materials 

The general and technological lycée has the same conditions that are valid for the other school education levels.
With lycées, the regions (and not the communes or the départements), in most cases, provide the pupils with schoolbooks.