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France:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview France

Contents

France:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

France:Historical Development

France:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

France:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

France:Political and Economic Situation

France:Organisation and Governance

France:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

France:Lifelong Learning Strategy

France:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

France:Organisation of Private Education

France:National Qualifications Framework

France:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

France:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

France:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

France:Funding in Education

France:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

France:Higher Education Funding

France:Adult Education and Training Funding

France:Early Childhood Education and Care

France:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

France:Primary Education

France:Organisation of Primary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

France:Assessment in Primary Education

France:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

France:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

France:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

France:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

France:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

France:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Higher Education

France:Types of Higher Education Institutions

France:First Cycle Programmes

France:Bachelor

France:Short-Cycle Higher Education

France:Second Cycle Programmes

France:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

France:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

France:Adult Education and Training

France:Distribution of Responsibilities

France:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

France:Main Providers

France:Main Types of Provision

France:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

France:Teachers and Education Staff

France:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

France:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Management and Other Education Staff

France:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

France:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

France:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

France:Management Staff for Higher Education

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Quality Assurance

France:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

France:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

France:Educational Support and Guidance

France:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

France:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

France:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

France:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

France:Mobility and Internationalisation

France:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Mobility in Higher Education

France:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

France:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

France:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

France:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

France:National Reforms in School Education

France:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

France:National Reforms in Higher Education

France:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

France:European Perspective

France:Legislation

France:Glossary

Definition of the Target Group(s)

There are three pupil categories that benefit from educational services outside of the ordinary school environment:

  • pupils suffering from disabilities that compromise their access to ordinary schooling; they are cared for by medico-social facilities
  • pupils who are temporarily distanced from their school for health reasons: accident, a chronic disease requiring repeated interruption in their schooling or lengthy diseases; they are cared for by health facilities
  • minors in detention; they are cared for by facilities and reception methods under the supervision of the Minister of Justice and Freedoms


Admission Requirements and Choice of School



The medico-social sector

Orienting the disabled pupil towards medico-social institutions derives from a decision by the Commission of disabled persons' rights and autonomy (article 21 of the Law no. 2005-102 of 11 February).

Reception centres

The systems and structures of the medico-social sector target young disabled persons and come under the responsibility of the ministry for social affairs. The schooling of children and teenagers in this sector is placed under the supervision of the ministry for national Education. The children admitted to a medico-social education institution or service for young disabled persons are also admitted into an ordinary institution. The conditions of this admission are set out in an agreement between the medico-social institution and the academic authorities.

There are different types of institutions:

  • Special education institutions for intellectually deficient children, including specialised kindergarten, medico-educational institutions (IME);
  • Institutions for multiply disabled children and teenagers: they cater for children and teenagers combining serious mental disability with significant motor disability;
  • Therapeutic, educational and pedagogical institutes (ITEP): they cater for young people suffering from behavioural disorders with almost normal or normal intellectual abilities;
  • Special education institutions for children suffering from motor disability or cerebral palsy;
  • Sensory education institutes including institutions for children suffering from hearing disability, institutes for visual disability and sensory education institutes for deaf or blind children;
  • The Special education and home care services (SESSAD).



The Health sector

Admission to one of the health facilities with an educational department for ill pupils is indicated by a medical prescription.

Reception centres

The health sector organises the admission of pupils that are temporarily taken away from their educational institution for health reasons: accident, chronic illness requiring repeated school disruptions or protracted disease. They can continue their schooling in the following institutions:

  • In the hospital: school centres installed in paediatric units ensure the schooling of hospitalised children (especially at elementary school level). With regard to secondary education, it is possible to resort to the "Federation for the education of sick people at home and in the hospital" (FEMDH), which assembles approximately thirty non-profit associations with a common objective: ensuring free education, provided by qualified volunteers to any child and teenager whose normal schooling is disrupted by a disease or an accident;
  • At home: the convalescent sick child, back home, must be able to continue studying. The Department for national Education has implemented a pedagogical aid system in the home of sick or injured pupils (SAPAD). It applies to all pupils, from the final year of pre-elementary education to the end of secondary education, whose provisional absence is longer than three or four weeks, and offers personalised schooling solutions by using the help, first and foremost, of the sick pupil’s teachers;
  • At Health-oriented children’s homes (MECSA): they are residential institutions admitting young people requiring constant medical monitoring. Each institution is specialised in the treatment of a particular mental or physical disorder;
  • Distance education: if a sick child cannot attend an ordinary or specialised institution, a training course can be authorised for them, subject to medical justification, via the national centre for distance education (CNED). The CNED, a public institution under the authority of the ministry for national Education, covers all elementary and secondary school levels. Pupils under 16 years old can benefit from three hours of class per week, provided by a deputy teacher in charge of guiding and advising them in their work.


Minors in detention

Access to education is a fundamental right of detainees as laid out in regulatory documents (art D. 450 to D. 456 of the penal code – CPP). Primary education is given in all penal facilities. Compulsory education is a rule for the under-16s, and an incentive scheme is used for minors of 16 and 17 and young detainees. The Ministry of National Education and the Ministry of Justice and Freedoms have instigated a partnership so as to ensure access to this right.

Reception centres

Primary-level instruction is ensured in all prisons by the teaching personnel of the Ministry of National Education made available to the prison administration.

Furthermore, penitential institutions for minors (EPM) opened in April 2007. EPMs are structures placed under the responsibility of the prison administration. These penitential institutions provide education services as well as detain minors and carry out sentences. Each EPM has sixty detained minors aged 13 to 18, accused and sentenced. It is managed by a prison director who appoints, within the management team, the staff in charge of the services dealing with the legal protection of young people, healthcare and national education. The admission of minors in EPMs is based on the action of a multi-disciplinary team made up of permanent members involved with detained minors on a daily basis: surveillance staff, instructors from the Department for Justice, national education teachers, doctors and nurses from the somatic and psychiatric care services.
The education service is part of the institution project. It meets the legal requirements for young people under 16 and young people who left the education system without a qualification. For young people who were enrolled in education before their imprisonment, education in EPM takes over from their previous institution in order to avoid a break in the education career. Teaching is integrated into the rehabilitation programme of detained minors, from the admission phase where illiteracy detection is systematic and skill assessment optional, to the preparation for their release.

Age Levels and Grouping of Pupils

Due to the specific characteristics of the public concerned, it is difficult to have a strict division per education cycle (an effort is made to follow the ordinary education cycles) or age category.
The allocation of school work during the school year, the weekly and daily schedule of pedagogical activities or their mode of integration into global educational activities, timetables and programmes must be adapted to the special needs of children and adolescents.

In medical and healthcare institutions, this is established by the pedagogical director, who takes into consideration the opinion of the institution’s director and doctor, who must determine the aptitude of each patient.

The internal rules of prisons determine the conditions in which teaching is given.

For all of these institutions, educational organisation is subject to the approval of the relevant academic authorities, who also receive a copy of the institution’s annual educational project.
Teachers are involved in the design of the educational project of the medical, healthcare or social institution. They are kept informed of the health of the children and adolescents entrusted to them. They are obliged to participate in summary meetings regarding their functions or their pupils.

Curriculum, Subjects


The medico-social sector

In medico-social institutions the methods of schooling and training offered are always a part of the framework of the pupil's personalised schooling project (PPS). Organising schooling and the number of teachers vary from one institution to another; they are detailed in a convention made between the body and the State (art. D351-18 of the education code). In all cases the teaching is done by referring to the official programmes as part of adapted instruction. The specialised institution offers schooling either within its walls (by creating a "teaching unit") or in collaboration with schools in which the disabled pupils are enrolled.


The Health sector

Teaching given in health facilities, as well as by distance education (CNED), refer to national programmes.

Minors in detention

Teaching given to detained minors refers to national programmes. They are dispensed by National Education staff, and all training levels must be able to be provided from basic training (literacy, illiteracy and French as a foreign language) secondary-level general training (preparing the CAP-BEP, collège diploma or the baccalauréat).

Teaching Methods and Materials



The medico-social sector and the Health sector

The teaching methods in the specialised institutions conform to the teaching methods used in general educational institutions for pupils with specific needs.

Socio-educational sector

The educational challenge in basic training courses is due to the magnitude of a person's learning difficulties, the limited number of weekly hours, a usually short training time and fragile motivation.
To succeed in delayed learning, specialist teachers implement motivating teaching approaches and processes highlighting the skills sectors in which people experience the greatest difficulty.

The law of 5 March 2007 relating to the prevention of delinquency introduced a new educational measure, that of daytime activity (MAJ). It is a penal educational measure handed down by the judge or the jurisdiction for a minor against a minor, perpetrator or alleged perpetrator of a breach of the law (offence), aged from 10 to 18. Such minors often have serious learning difficulties and considerable behavioural problems. It offers an alternative or a supplement to the legal educational measures and consists in "the minor's participation in vocational or learning measures […]" (memorandum no. 2008-131 of 2 October 2008, MEN). The MAJ is defined according to the young person's needs, their educational level and situation; It different from other mentoring schemes offered outside of class time by schools or educational institutions.

Progression of Pupils

The progress of disabled pupils enrolled in medico-social facilities, as well as ill pupils is studied by the multi-disciplinary team. According to art. L.112-2 of the education code, "In order to benefit from an adapted education programme, each disabled child, adolescent or adult is entitled to the assessment of their skills, requirements and measures implemented within the framework of their curriculum, according to a timeframe adapted to their situation. This assessment is carried out by the multi-disciplinary team. The parents or legal representative are obliged to comment on this occasion".

The progress of minors educationally enrolled within a penal institution is monitored by the team of instructors working in these facilities. Assessment of acquired experience must be guaranteed by the use of the record book attesting to general training courses (inter-ministerial circular of 25 May 1998) in order to enable adapted supervision and study continuity in case of a transfer from a remand centre to a penitential institution or upon release. The services concerned (education and court office) must send a copy of the record book to the local person in charge of education on the site of destination.

Certification

The organisation of examinations and competitive examinations in primary, secondary and higher education for the acquisition of school and university certificates and qualifications by disabled candidates is governed by the circular no. 2006-215 of 26 December 2006.
Any person with a disability and taking an examination or competitive examination must send an adaptation request to one of the doctors designated by the Committee for the rights and autonomy of disabled persons (CDAPH).
During the tests, the equal treatment of all candidates must be ensured by:

  • Premises accessibility (ramp, adequate lifts, adapted toilets and nearby infirmary);
  • The practical installation of the examination room– sufficient space to install the candidate’s special equipment;
  • Technical or human support, consistent with that used by the pupil during the school year;
  • Time extension upon justified request from the doctor designated by the CDAPH;
  • Test surveillance, identical to that imposed upon the other candidates.


With regard to secondary education examinations or competitive examinations, the academic authorities must take into account the measures aiming at opening special examination centres if certain candidates in healthcare institutions for long-term stay or receiving care in connection with these institutions are unable, for any reason whatsoever, to travel to the examination centres of the education institutions. If a medical certificate relative to the special conditions needed by the hospitalised candidate is required, the doctor in charge of the service will be invited to provide it.

Education in a prison environment

The preparation for qualifications and validation of required experience in a prison environment requires that the detainees’ training course be validated should they require it: depending on the situation, this validation can be made by a simple attestation of activities undertaken or validation of acquired experience by a jury or, when possible, by the presentation at an examination (certificate of general education, brevet, baccalauréat, university diploma). Pedagogical units, in close partnership with the services in charge of examinations in the académies, must facilitate applications for examinations so as not to penalise recently committed or transferred detainees. Similarly, they must make the necessary arrangements to enable released persons to sit the examination that they prepared for.

Teachers send the updated list of the persons applying for examinations and test dates to the penitential institution and regional management, so that the candidates under the authority of the regional director remain on site: as far as possible and unless requested by the detainee or due to exceptional circumstances (legal or health and safety reasons), a detainee should not be transferred when near the date of an examination.