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France:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview France

Contents

France:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

France:Historical Development

France:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

France:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

France:Political and Economic Situation

France:Organisation and Governance

France:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

France:Lifelong Learning Strategy

France:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

France:Organisation of Private Education

France:National Qualifications Framework

France:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

France:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

France:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

France:Funding in Education

France:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

France:Higher Education Funding

France:Adult Education and Training Funding

France:Early Childhood Education and Care

France:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

France:Primary Education

France:Organisation of Primary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

France:Assessment in Primary Education

France:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

France:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

France:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

France:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

France:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

France:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Higher Education

France:Types of Higher Education Institutions

France:First Cycle Programmes

France:Bachelor

France:Short-Cycle Higher Education

France:Second Cycle Programmes

France:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

France:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

France:Adult Education and Training

France:Distribution of Responsibilities

France:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

France:Main Providers

France:Main Types of Provision

France:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

France:Teachers and Education Staff

France:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

France:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Management and Other Education Staff

France:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

France:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

France:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

France:Management Staff for Higher Education

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Quality Assurance

France:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

France:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

France:Educational Support and Guidance

France:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

France:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

France:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

France:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

France:Mobility and Internationalisation

France:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Mobility in Higher Education

France:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

France:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

France:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

France:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

France:National Reforms in School Education

France:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

France:National Reforms in Higher Education

France:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

France:European Perspective

France:Legislation

France:Glossary

Schols trips and pupil exchanges are organised both at primary and secondary level.


Pupil and Student Mobility


Schools trips and pupil exchanges

School trips

The framework Law for the future of school and certain application decrees published in the JO of 29/08/05, reflect the wishes of the ministry for National Education to largely open the school to the world. In this context, the legislative framework of the choice of school trip is set out by decree 2005 - 1145 of 09/09/2005 published in the JO of 11/09/05: "The board of governors gives its agreement on school trip programming and funding methods". A 1997 guideline from the Public Education code, reactivated in September 2005, reiterates, among other things, that the supervision of school trips comes under the definition of a public service mission and that the cost of the trip for the accompanying teachers must not be borne by the parents.

Pupil exchanges

These exchanges take place within the framework of matching agreements between French and foreign primary schools, collège and lycées. A matching is a type of twinning between a French educational institution and a foreign partner institution.
These twinning agreements are not carried out on the basis of circumstantial relationships but involve a wish to establish a sustainable partnership, based on reciprocity and genuine educational cooperation.
The exchanges carried out in this context should by no means be traditional language and cultural discovery trips. Integrated as they are into the school project and into an inter-disciplinary approach, they have a greater ambition. Each exchange should be organised on the basis of an annual theme determined after a consultation process and on which both groups of pupils work, notably using e-mail correspondence. The meetings should be an opportunity to look at the results and work on a collective summary report.
The final matching authorisation (circular no. 91-221 of 1st August 1991) is given by the recteur, who notifies the head teacher or head of the institution. Depending on the quality of the project presented and its inter-disciplinary aspect (circular no. 82-024 of 15 January 1982), financial support from the academy (academic committee) can be granted.
Matching initiatives are also designed for technical and vocational education pupils. They provide for work placements of variable duration, carried out in foreign companies and included in the training curriculum. These placements are notably carried out within the framework of the "Mobility" measure of the Leonardo da Vinci Community programme (3 to 39-week work placements for approximately 2,700 pupils, 700 of them apprentices, per year in France). More generally, school partnerships and work placements in European companies implemented and supported by the EFTLV (see 11.4.3.) must also be formalised by a matching procedure.


Mobility programmes

Nationally administered mobility programmes top-up this kind of exchange or pupil group travel. These mobility programmes are made available to pupils who wish to do part of their curriculum in another country.

Nursery and primary schools

At this level mobility is more often than not considered as "virtual", based mostly on partnerships and schools networking with schools abroad. Exchanges are done at a distance by means of ICTE.

Secondary schools

The Franco-Swedish mobility programme, "European education – a year in France"
Candidates: public or private general or technical lycées with boarding capacity.
Timeframe: one year
Characteristics: individual mobility of Première and Terminale Swedish pupils in a French school. Pupils are housed with French families. They follow French school curriculum and may sit the baccalauréat.
Objectives: promote the discovery and exchange of cultures
Funding: Sweden pays a study allowance to the schools to cover tuition and boarding as well as compensation to families who take in Swedish pupils on weekends and holidays.
Operator: Centre international d’études pédagogiques (CIEP–International Centre of Teaching Studies)

"Young ambassadors" programme
Candidates: Seconde and Première pupils enrolled in public lycées in France's Île-de-France Aquitaine, Rhône-Alpes and Limousin.
Timeframe: two weeks
Characteristics: reception in a lycée and an American family. Participation in discussions and encounters with associations and other young people on themes dealing with cultural diversity, identity, the equality of chances, etc. Learning about the various solidarity associations.
Objectives: enhancing language skills and discovering American culture and society.
Funding: funded by the United States Department of State and the ACSE (Agence nationale pour la cohesion sociale et l'égalité des chances–National Agency for Social Cohesion and the Equality of Chances).
Operator: ACSE

Grants for French lycées abroad
The "London" grant programme gives French lycéens a chance to spend a school year (Première and Terminale) in French schools abroad: London, Vienna, Munich, Barcelona, Madrid and Dublin.
Candidates: Seconde and Première pupils in French lycées
Timeframe: one year
Characteristics: an average of 35 pupils, planned exclusively for classes in Première and Terminale ES (Economics and Social), S (Scientific) and L (Literary). The merit scholarship pupils have priority. The country choice depends on the primary modern language studied by the pupil.
Objectives : enhancing language skills and intercultural discovery.
Funding: direction générale de l’enseignement scolaire (Directorate General of Schooling), the Vie de l'élève programme.
Operator: Direction générale de l’enseignement scolaire (DGESCO) and Academies

Charles De Gaulle Scholarships
An Anglo-French programme
Candidates: pupils between 17 and 19
Timeframe: 4 weeks
Characteristics: individual mobility and research work on a topic chosen by the pupil.
Funding: £1,000
Operator: British Council

Fellowship or individual mobility scholarship
An Anglo-French programme
Candidates: English and French upper-secondary school pupils in volunteer academies)
Timeframe: about ten days
Characteristics: individual mobility, a personal research project relating to the pupil's studies.
Objectives: enhancing language skills and intercultural discovery.
Funding: 50 scholarships funded by the British Council and academic credits (for France) as part of a partnership between academies and local authorities.
Operator: the British Council and the DAREICs (Délégation académiques aux relations européennes et internationales et à la cooperation–Academic Delegation for European and International Relations and Co-operation).

Heinrich Heine Programme
A Franco-German programme
Candidates: Pupils in 3ème and Seconde enrolled in B1 certification in German.
Timeframe: from 3 to 6 weeks including two that occur in school time at the host school.
Characteristics: individual stay in Germany; housed by a German family; a stage in the pupil's curriculum.
Objectives: enhancing language skills and understanding of the German school system, family living and culture.
Funding: travel and living expenses  paid for by families.
Operator: DAREIC

Brigitte Sauzay Programme
A Franco-German programme
Candidates: pupils from 4ème to Première having studied German for at least 2 years.
Timeframe: 2 consecutive months including 6 weeks of school time at the host school for pupils in 4ème; 3 consecutive months including 6 weeks of school time at the host school for pupils from 3ème to Première.
Characteristics: individual exchange in Germany; boarding with a German family.
Objectives: understanding the other country's school system, daily family life and culture; improving language skills.
Funding: travel and living expenses paid for by the family. Subsidy for living expenses by the OFAJ (Franco-German Office for Youth) insofar as credits are available.
Operator: OFAJ

Voltaire Programme
A Franco-German programme
Candidates: pupils from 3ème and 2nde in general, technical and vocational curricula.
Timeframe: 6 months
Characteristics: individual mobility; hosted in German/French lycées of French/German young people for successive exchanges; housed by the correspondent's family.
Objectives: discovery of the neighbouring country's school system and culture; improving language skills and enhancing Franco-German ties.
Funding: €250 for travel and scholarship from the Franco-German Office for Youth (OFAJ)
Operator: OFAJ

Exchanges of young people and adults in vocational education

Zellidja travel scholarship
A multilateral programme
Candidates: young French speakers from 16 to 20
Timeframe: minimum of one month
Characteristics: a study trip on the topic chosen by the pupil in the country of their choice lasting a minimum of one month; submission of an 8- to 10-page document presenting the travel and study trip; drafting a study report on the topic chosen, a logbook and an accounts book upon their return home.
Funding: first stay–€900; second stay–€1,100
Operator: the Zellidja Foundation.

Leonardo da Vinci Programme
A European programme.
Candidates: apprentices, pupils doing initial vocational training (FPI scolaire) up to baccalauréat level.
Timeframe: 2 to 39 weeks.
Characteristics: training done in a European country; mobility reliant on the vocational schools and under their control; the period of mobility abroad recognised as an integral part of the training curriculum.
Objectives: enhancing apprentices' or pupils' capacities and skills; improving the quality of ongoing vocational training; contributing to vocational training in the innovation process.
Funding: Leonardo Scholarship.
Operator: Agence Europe Education Formation France (2E2F, Agency for Europe Education Training France).

Comenius Programme
A European programme
Candidates: pupils at least 14.
Timeframe: 3 to 10 months.
Characteristics: individual mobility; a stay in a European school. Countries involved: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Estonia, Finland, France, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Norway, the Czech Republic and Sweden.
Objectives: personal development and improving language skills; developing notions of European citizenship.
Funding: the Comenius Scholarship
Operator: 2E2F

Young people and adult exchanges in vocational training
A Franco-German programme.
Candidates: vocational lycéens and apprentices.
Timeframe: a minimum of 3 weeks.
Characteristics: group mobility; training course in a vocational institution and/or in companies in the partner country.
Objectives: enrichment of vocational skills; learning the vocational training systems of partner countries; facilitating vocational mobility in Europe.
Funding: funded by the two governments involved: French (Ministry of National Education, Youth and Associative Life for Pupils in school and by the Ministry of the Economy, Finances and Industry for apprentices) and German (Federal Ministry of Training and Research).
Operator: Franco-German secretariat for exchanges in vocational training.



Teacher Mobility

Designed first and foremost for language teachers, all the initiatives organised enable teachers to acquire, through a direct relationship with teachers, families and various persons in charge, a better knowledge of the partner countries and significantly enhance their teaching practices. Their organisation and implementation procedures vary according to the agreements signed with the different partner countries. Different types of initiatives (mobility programmes and secondment abroad) cover the scope of teachers’ mobility. They should be distinguished from the potentially complementary European programmes.
These different actions, the objectives of which relate to language and cultural domains, contribute to the continuing training of primary and secondary education teachers or to the dissemination of the French language abroad.
They are an integral part of the policy for the promotion and diversification of modern languages which constitute a national priority. It is incumbent upon academic and departmental managers to ensure the broadest possible dissemination of this offer amongst teachers.


Mobility programmes for teachers

Exchange of posts with Quebec
A Franco-Quebec programme.
Candidates: primary school teachers, educators from the senior section of nursery school to the end of the primary school, having worked for at least 5 years.
Timeframe: a school year.
Characteristics: exchange of posts between Quebec teachers and French teachers.
Objectives: discovering another education system, new teaching practices; an international opening to pupils and schools; encouraging the mobility of pupils and teachers.
Funding: payment of air travel (from home to the point of expatriation) and expatriation expenses.
Operator Centre international d’études pédagogiques (CIEP)

Franco-German exchange of primary-school teachers
A Franco-German programme
Candidates: certified or trainee primary-school teachers.
Timeframe: one year, renewable.
Characteristics:  teachers provide identical service to that of their counterpart in the country involved; identical remuneration to that received in France; the drafting of an activities report at the end of the stay.
Objectives; compare teaching practices; language improvement; German teaching by native speakers; developing the teaching of French as a foreign language (FFL) in Germany; opening the school to an international dimension; encouraging the mobility of pupils and teachers.
Funding: €4,626 of compensation for temporary expatriation expenses.
Operator: OFAJ, French Ministry of National Education, Youth and Associative Life, Länder Ministries of Education.

CODOFIL
Bilateral co-operation
Candidates: primary- and secondary-school teachers.
Timeframe: 1 to 3 years.
Characteristics: teaching French in total immersion schools in Louisiana.
Objectives: developing the teaching of French as a foreign language (FFL); language improvement and developing French in Louisiana.
Funding: $40,000 annual salary
Operator: CIEP

Language internships
A multilateral programme
Candidates: Primary-and secondary-school teachers (modern-language teachers, non-language teachers and teachers approved for teaching modern languages).
Timeframe: during school holidays, an average of two weeks or 10 days of effective teaching.
Characteristics: a language internship in German, English, Arabic (every 2 years), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and Russian (every 2 years).
Objectives: ongoing teacher training; enrichment of teaching practices; improving language skills; support for the diversification of modern languages.
Funding: all training-related expenses, housing and food are paid for by the Minister of National Education, Youth and Associative Life. Travel is paid for my the teacher.
Operator: CIEP

Anglo-French co-operation: teacher training
An Anglo-French programme
Candidates: future primary-school teachers; trainee secondary-school teachers; trainee vocational lycée teachers (PLP) and holders of the Certificat d'aptitude au professorat (teaching capacity certificate) for technical teaching.
Characteristics: exchanges of trainee teachers for training stays of 4 weeks; organizing an annual European seminar with participation by English inspectors or school heads and training seminars.
Objectives: enrichment of language skills; improvement of the professional skills of trainees in varied teaching situations; the development of interculturality.
Operator: General inspectorate; IUFM (Instituts Universitaires de Formation des Maîtres–University Institutes for Training Primary-school Teachers); Training and Development Agency for Schools.

Professional stays
A Multilateral programme
Candidates: secondary-school teachers in non-language disciplines (DNL) and modern languages (priorities) and other disciplines (non-priorities).
Timeframe: 2 weeks in a partner school  with one week of school time.
Characteristics: professional stay; countries involved: Germany, Austria, Spain, Italy, Ireland, Portugal and the United Kingdom.
Objectives: European opening of schools; improving teacher language and teaching skills; strengthening ties between education communities; exchange of teaching practices.
Funding: one-off scholarship of €400 per trainee; possibility of requesting a Comenius scholarship from the 2E2F agency.
Operator: CIEP

Junes Verne programme
A multilateral programme
Candidates: primary-and secondary-school teachers, all disciplines.
Timeframe: one year, renewable once.
Characteristics: teaching in a foreign school; the choice of country is up to the academy according to partnerships.
Objectives: strengthening language skills; comparing teaching practices; contributing to the development of the academy's international policies.
Funding: the academy pays for return trip transport between the teaching post in France and abroad and holiday travel (return trip).
Operator: Ministry of National Education, Youth and Associative Life.

Exchange of posts with the United States
A Franco-American programme
Candidates: English teachers, French public school teachers in secondary-schools and American teachers from public and private schools.
Timeframe: one school year.
Characteristics: exchange of posts between French and American teachers; the Fulbright programme.
Objectives: discovering another education system and new teaching practices; international opening of pupils and schools; encouraging pupil and teacher mobility.
Funding: a mobility allowance paid for by CIEP; mobility allowance paid for by the Franco-American Commission.
Operator: the Franco-American Commission; CIEP.

Exchanges of teachers and trainers involved in exchanges of vocational lycéens and apprentices
A Franco-German programme
Candidates: teachers and trainers with enough knowledge of German and working in vocational lycées, technical lycées, lycées providing higher technical training and apprentice training centres run by the EPLEs (Établissement public local d'enseignement–Local public schools) or academic GIPs (Groupement d'intérêt public–Group in the public interest).
Timeframe: a minimum of 2 weeks.
Characteristics: individual mobility; internship in a vocational training school and/or in partner-country companies; stays by 2 partner participants are not organised simultaneously.
Objectives: better understanding of the vocational training system of partner countries; enhanced current co-operation and the preparation of new co-operation; the diversification of vocational training; reciprocal understanding of the vocational training systems; professional mobility in Europe.
Funding: payment of return trip travel expenses based on SNCF prices (2nd class) and per diems of €46.
Operator: Franco-German secretariat for vocational education  exchanges.

Secondment abroad

Teachers can be posted abroad to carry out teaching duties (in institutions attached to the Agency for French education abroad – A.E.F.E. – or in other education institutions), or exercise non teaching functions (in the cultural, scientific or cooperation network of the ministry in charge of Foreign Affairs; as an international civilian volunteer or for international organisations).

The A.E.F.E. is a public national administrative institution under the authority of the ministry of Foreign Affairs. The agency directly manages 75 French education institutions abroad and has agreements with another 103 institutions managed by associations or foundations, most frequently under private contracts. Expatriate jobs can be offered to permanent national Education teachers. Posting under the authority of the A.E.F.E. is for a period of three years, renewable once. Available expatriate posts or posts likely to become available are published in the official publication of the ministry of national Education, higher Education and Research.

Under certain conditions, a teacher can be placed in a secondment position to teach in a primary, secondary or higher education institution abroad. It should be noted that teachers can only be posted in authorised education institutions under the decree no. 93-1084 of 9 September 1993 relative to French education institutions abroad. This list is updated annually by ministerial order.
It is possible, moreover, for a teacher to work in "European schools". European schools are public facilities, co-funded by the European Union. Their purpose is to receive children of European citizens living in another member country. Agrégé professors, certified professors, primary-school teachers and tenured teachers of the Ministry of National Education can postulate for a post in a European school under certain conditions. The candidates must justify a minimum of effective teaching time in the post and be either active, on maternity leave, on a leave of absence or on temporary secondment in France or abroad. The length of stay in European schools is 9 years. These schools are in Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg, Great Britain, Italy and Spain.

Finally, the ministry in charge of Foreign Affairs offers available posts each year in its cultural, scientific and cooperation network. Recruitment as technical assistant and development worker abroad comes under the cultural, scientific and technical cooperation. It concerns secondments in institutions managed by foreign authorities.