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France:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview France

Contents

France:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

France:Historical Development

France:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

France:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

France:Political and Economic Situation

France:Organisation and Governance

France:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

France:Lifelong Learning Strategy

France:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

France:Organisation of Private Education

France:National Qualifications Framework

France:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

France:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

France:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

France:Funding in Education

France:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

France:Higher Education Funding

France:Adult Education and Training Funding

France:Early Childhood Education and Care

France:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

France:Primary Education

France:Organisation of Primary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

France:Assessment in Primary Education

France:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

France:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

France:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

France:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

France:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

France:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Higher Education

France:Types of Higher Education Institutions

France:First Cycle Programmes

France:Bachelor

France:Short-Cycle Higher Education

France:Second Cycle Programmes

France:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

France:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

France:Adult Education and Training

France:Distribution of Responsibilities

France:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

France:Main Providers

France:Main Types of Provision

France:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

France:Teachers and Education Staff

France:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

France:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Management and Other Education Staff

France:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

France:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

France:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

France:Management Staff for Higher Education

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Quality Assurance

France:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

France:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

France:Educational Support and Guidance

France:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

France:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

France:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

France:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

France:Mobility and Internationalisation

France:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Mobility in Higher Education

France:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

France:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

France:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

France:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

France:National Reforms in School Education

France:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

France:National Reforms in Higher Education

France:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

France:European Perspective

France:Legislation

France:Glossary

Guidance involves the whole educational community to work in the interests of the pupils' future. Teachers, psychology-guidance councillors and school heads are the main players, but this responsibility also involves each person in their specific skills: the teacher-documentalist, the National Education physician, the assistant social worker, the main education councillor, the co-ordinator of the mission activity for general integration (MGI). There are also other partners outside National Education to teach about the working world or prepare for vocational integration.


Academic Guidance


Pre-primary and Primary level

There no academic guidance at pre-primary and primary level. However, at primary level, the cycle teachers' council states an opinion concerning the transfer from one cycle to another and the time taken by pupils in the cycle: this can be lengthened or shortened by one year, depending on children's learning rhythms.
The school head informs the parents of the proposals made. Parents can dispute the decision within a 15 day deadline, sending a justified appeal to the académie inspecteur, the département's director of the Department of Education, who makes the final decision.

Lower secondary level

The orientation decision towards the general or technological path or the occupational path in upper secondary education (ISCED 3) is the responsibility of the school head and is taken after the class council; it is subject to recourse through appeal to a commission presided by the académie inspector.

Since the 2006-2007 school year, a personalised orientation interview is offered to all 3rd class pupils, in order to accompany them in transitioning to lycée. This interview is conducted by the main teacher, who will call upon the expertise of the guidance professionals (directors of guidance and information centres, guidance counsellor-psychologists). The concrete methods for organising this are the responsibility of the school head (Circular no. 2006-213 of 14 December 2006).

Upper secondary level

During their schooling in the lycée, pupils make several orientation choices:

  • at the end of the first year of lycée (second class), pupils chose the baccalauréat "series"; they thus decide to continue their programme either down the general path (and aim, more precisely, for one of the three baccalauréats offered by this path: scientific, literary, economic and social), or down the technological path (baccalauréat on management sciences and technologies, industrial sciences and technologies, etc.). Compulsory optional subjects are offered to the pupils during this year (see the timetable for the second class), which allow them to explore different subjects in order to better prepare their orientation choice at the end of the year;
  • at the end of the second year of lycée (first class), as the choice of a baccalauréat series has already been made, the pupils select the subjects for specialism for the last year of lycée (ending class). An orientation interview conducted by the main teacher with the support of the guidance counsellor-psychologist and is offered to all first class lycée pupils. This interview makes it possible to inform the lycée pupil of the various options that are available after the baccalauréat and as such assist him in refining the choice that he will have to make in the ending class.
  • during the least year of lycée (ending class), pupils are led to reflect about possibly continuing their studies and to specify the idea that they have on careers and professions.


With the same purpose, starting in September 2009, all lycée students can benefit from the orientation system "career and training discovery programme".

The orientation decision remains the personal responsibility of the lycée pupil. Nevertheless, this choice is prepared through in-depth information and education, for which the school head and education team is responsible. Generally and for all levels, an education programme concerning orientation is developed annually under the responsibility of the school head and is incorporated into the school project; it is the responsibility of the education team to select the methods and tools that will be used to supplement the documents provided by the Office national d'information sur les enseignements et les professions (National Office for information on courses and professions).
At all levels, the education team, and more particularly the main teacher and the guidance counsellor-psychologist, are in charge of ensuring that the pupils are advised individually whenever needed, with the purpose being that "at the end of the lycée, pupils must be able to make a determination with full knowledge of the requirements of higher education and its outlets" (Circular no. 96-230 of 1 October 1996). Generally and for all levels, an education programme concerning orientation is developed annually under the responsibility of the school head and is incorporated into the school project; it is the responsibility of the education team to select the methods and tools that will be used to supplement the documents provided by the Office national d'information sur les enseignements et les professions (National Office for information on courses and professions).



Psychological Counselling

Pupils and their families have the right to ask in every school for the advice of a guidance expert, the psychologist guidance councillor.

In contact with the teachers and school head, the psychologist guidance councillor is the school's technical advisor for guidance. Their understanding of training systems, transfer procedures, the professions and integration and their skills in psychology make them a player with multi-disciplinary resources. The teaching staff should call for them whenever there is an individual problem of adaptation or complex guidance issues.

Other figures contribute to psychological support and guidance for the pupil:

The principle education councillor

Through their knowledge of the pupils' daily lives and their family environment. As well as the way the school is run, the principle education councillor also has his or her input. They facilitate dialogue with the pupils and their families.

Parents

Parents are an integral part of the educational community and play an essential role in guiding their children. They are closely associated with the procedures and decisions made at the various stages of the school career.



Career Guidance

The Players

At all levels, the education team, and more particularly the main teacher and the guidance counsellor-psychologist, are in charge of ensuring that the pupils are advised individually whenever needed, with the purpose being that "at the end of the lycée, pupils must be able to make a determination with full knowledge of the requirements of higher education and its outlets" (Circular no. 96-230 of 1 October 1996 http://www.reunion.iufm.fr/dep/cpe/txt/liaison-orientation/BO-orientation-lycee-1996.pdf).
The psychologist guidance councillors work as a team in the information and guidance centre (CIO), a place of resources concerning the school catchment areas and district for information on the professions and training courses. The head of the CIO organises the team of psychologists guidance councillors and co-ordinates the guidance policies of the catchment area or district.

- Besides the principle teacher and the psychologist guidance councillor, the teacher-documentalist also contributes to orienting pupils towards the professional world. In charge of the school's documentary resources (which are repertoried in the "documentation and information centre"–the CDI), they teach pupils how to do research and use information. In each CDI, the National Office of education information and jobs (Onisep) makes written digital and multimedia resources available on the jobs and training courses.

- The school also links up with partners outside the State educational system, in particular companies, to help reveal the working world to pupils or help prepare for occupational integration. One of the purposes of the school-business partnership is to develop tools together to help in guidance and educational tools for teachers so as to pass onto pupils and their families information about jobs and possible interesting training courses.
The school-business partnership helps shape a framework that defines the rights and duties of everyone. It is formalised in the conventions and agreements co-signed by the Ministry and its partners, defined at the academy level and serves as a basis for numerous substantive activities.



Schemes


The career and training discovery programme

Collège pupils have the possibility, from 5th class, to follow an awareness and information programme on careers and training. This is a guidance system that was set up starting at the beginning of the 2009 school year, and involves collège as well as lycée pupils. The purpose of the system is to allow each pupil to build his programme being aware of the information as much as possible, in order to base his orientation choices on a solid foundation. Opening up to careers and training programmes is, indeed, one of the missions of the education system provided for by the Guidance and Planning Law for the Future of Schools of 23 April 2005. It is linked to the acquisition of skills in the common base, especially social and civic skills and skills concerning autonomy and initiative.

This programme is aimed at acquiring knowledge, skills and aptitude and revolves around three dimensions:

  • career discovery
  • discovering training programmes offered by the education system
  • self-evaluation and self-knowledge.
  • It is broken down at each level through dominant activities, "career stages" and "highlights" offered by the institution and in particular the personalised guidance meetings in 3rd class, 1st class and in the final year and in the first year of vocational education.


At collège

At collège, this programme must contribute to the acquisition of "social and civic" skills as well as those pertaining to "autonomy and initiative" of the common base of knowledge and skills. Beginning with 5th class starts the discovery of a wide range of careers, which will continue until 3rd class and could also be continued into the lycée. These career stages take support from:

  • education: discovering careers can fall in line with the pedagogical activity of the teachers. The contribution of the various subjects can be coordinated as needed by the pedagogical council;
  • class time: at all levels of education, class time can be used to implement supervised activities linked to this programme. Listed on the pupil's timetable and coordinated by the main teacher, they can also be annualised for more effectiveness;
  • the existing educative efforts implemented on académie and départemental levels or efforts specific to the institution, by relaying, among other things, national initiatives (School-Company week, weeks focussing on the press, science, art and cultural education efforts, contributions of the national professional branches, etc.);
  • the varied means of contact with the world of business and work: on-site informational visits, meetings with professionals, career crossroads, etc.;
  • observation sequences in professional surroundings;
  • the time for educational support which could also supplement this system.


In 4th and 3rd class, pupils are invited to spend the day in a lycée, a vocational lycée or in a Centre de Formation d'Apprentis – apprentice training centre. During visits to the various institutions, presentations or meetings with the pupils or students, the pupil can be informed on the curriculums and ongoing studies, in such a way as to understand the diversity in the programmes that are available in a training perspective all throughout life.

At lycée

The objective of the discovery programme, in the lycée, is to contribute to the orientation of the lycée pupil after the baccalauréat. Specific actions are in place:

  • a day visit by each lycée pupil in 1st class in a university, university institute of technology, advanced technician's section or a class preparing for Grandes Ecoles;
  • personalised orientation meetings offered in 1st class and in the final year;
  • a personalised interview in the first year of CAP/BEP/bac pro for three years, allowing, in the receiving phase, to identify the needs of the pupils in order to build their programme;
  • personalised support can, for those pupils who want it, be an opportunity to learn how to write a CV, handle a job interview and prepare for integration into the work force in cooperation with the public job service.