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France:Funding in Education

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Overview France

Contents

France:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

France:Historical Development

France:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

France:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

France:Political and Economic Situation

France:Organisation and Governance

France:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

France:Lifelong Learning Strategy

France:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

France:Organisation of Private Education

France:National Qualifications Framework

France:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

France:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

France:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

France:Funding in Education

France:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

France:Higher Education Funding

France:Adult Education and Training Funding

France:Early Childhood Education and Care

France:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

France:Primary Education

France:Organisation of Primary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

France:Assessment in Primary Education

France:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

France:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

France:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

France:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

France:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

France:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Higher Education

France:Types of Higher Education Institutions

France:First Cycle Programmes

France:Bachelor

France:Short-Cycle Higher Education

France:Second Cycle Programmes

France:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

France:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

France:Adult Education and Training

France:Distribution of Responsibilities

France:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

France:Main Providers

France:Main Types of Provision

France:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

France:Teachers and Education Staff

France:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

France:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Management and Other Education Staff

France:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

France:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

France:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

France:Management Staff for Higher Education

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Quality Assurance

France:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

France:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

France:Educational Support and Guidance

France:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

France:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

France:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

France:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

France:Mobility and Internationalisation

France:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Mobility in Higher Education

France:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

France:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

France:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

France:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

France:National Reforms in School Education

France:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

France:National Reforms in Higher Education

France:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

France:European Perspective

France:Legislation

France:Glossary

In France, several actors participate in financing education: the State, local authorities, households and companies.

In 2012, the dépense intérieure d’éducation (DIE - domestic expenditure on education) came to 146 billion euros, 6.8% of the national wealth (L’État de l’École 2016).

The State finances over half of the DIE (57.1% in 2012); salaries, social charges and pensions represents 74.3% of the DIE (L'éducation nationale en chiffres 2015).

In 2014, local authorities financed 23.8% of the DIE (L’État de l’École 2016). Since the decentralization laws of the 80s and 2004, they have been responsible for investments and material operation of schooling institutions, as well as for the remuneration of non-teaching staff:

  • Régions, for upper secondary institutions (ISCED 3): general and technological lycées, vocational lycées and Établissements Régionaux d'Enseignement Adapté (EREA –regional adapted education institutions);
  • Départements, for ISCED-2 level secondary institutions (collèges);
  • Municipalities, for primary schools (nursery and elementary, ISCED 1).

In 2014, households financed 7.8% of domestic expenditure on education (L’État de l’École 2016). Schoolbooks are free at primary schools and collèges.

In 2014, companies contributed to domestic expenditure on education to the tune of 8.5%, essentially through the apprenticeship tax and their expenditure on ongoing education (L’État de l’École 2016).

In 2014, 28.8% of the DIE were allocated to the primary education (42 Billion euros), 39.3% were allocated to secondary education (57.3 Billion euros), and 20.3% were allocated to higher education (29.8 billons euros) (L’État de l’École 2016).

The State was still the main financer (67.9% of financing), followed by local authorities (10.6%), companies (8.8%) and households (9.5%) (L’État de l’École 2016). Following the enactment of law no.2007-1199 of 10 August 2007, universities have been managing the whole of their budgets autonomously, and are also permitted recourse to private funding. Public research laboratories are partly financed by budget appropriations from universities, public research bodies and financing agencies, including the National Research Agency (ANR – Agence nationale de la recherche), and also receive other subsidies from French regions, charities, industry and Europe.

Turning to the private sector, private educational institutions can obtain public financing under the conditions laid down by law. With regard to schools, in the case of private institutions which have signed a contract with the State under law no. 59-1557 of 31 December 1959 (i.e. almost all private scholastic institutions), the State is responsible for payment of teachers’ salaries and of social security contributions and taxes incumbent upon the employer, as well as for the cost of initial and ongoing training of teachers. In return, such institutions must follow a curriculum identical to that of their public counterparts, recruit teachers salaried under public law, and submit to the same inspections as public institutions. Départements and régions also contribute to the financing of secondary education institutions under contract (collèges and lycées).

As regards higher education, the State can subsidise private higher education courses. Certain schools are financed by the Departments of Agriculture or Social Affairs, and many of them receive subsidies from the Department of Education. Such institutions must have been “recognised” by the State: recognition results from monitoring an institution’s operation, courses dispensed, and supervisory and teaching staff. It then enables the institution concerned to request subsidies, the granting of which is not automatic.