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France:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

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Overview France

Contents

France:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

France:Historical Development

France:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

France:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

France:Political and Economic Situation

France:Organisation and Governance

France:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

France:Lifelong Learning Strategy

France:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

France:Organisation of Private Education

France:National Qualifications Framework

France:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

France:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

France:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

France:Funding in Education

France:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

France:Higher Education Funding

France:Adult Education and Training Funding

France:Early Childhood Education and Care

France:Organisation of Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Assessment in Programmes for Children under 2-3 years

France:Organisation of Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Teaching and Learning in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Assessment in Programmes for Children over 2-3 years

France:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

France:Primary Education

France:Organisation of Primary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Primary Education

France:Assessment in Primary Education

France:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Primary Education

France:Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Organisation of General Lower Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in General Lower Secondary Education

France:Assessment in General Lower Secondary Education

France:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

France:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

France:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

France:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

France:Higher Education

France:Types of Higher Education Institutions

France:First Cycle Programmes

France:Bachelor

France:Short-Cycle Higher Education

France:Second Cycle Programmes

France:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

France:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

France:Adult Education and Training

France:Distribution of Responsibilities

France:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

France:Main Providers

France:Main Types of Provision

France:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

France:Teachers and Education Staff

France:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

France:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Management and Other Education Staff

France:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

France:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

France:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

France:Management Staff for Higher Education

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

France:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

France:Quality Assurance

France:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

France:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

France:Educational Support and Guidance

France:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

France:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

France:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

France:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

France:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

France:Mobility and Internationalisation

France:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Mobility in Higher Education

France:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

France:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

France:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

France:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

France:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

France:National Reforms in School Education

France:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

France:National Reforms in Higher Education

France:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

France:European Perspective

France:Legislation

France:Glossary


France's Continuous Vocational Training development starts in 1970-71 with the Accord National Interprofessionnel (ANI - National Inter-professional Agreement) and recognition of lifelong learning as a "national obligation".

Historical development

Continuous Vocational Training (CVT) is acknowledged as a national provision since the “Delors’ law” (law no. 71-575 of July 16th, 1971), which is based on the Accord National Interprofessionnel (ANI - National Inter-professional Agreement) of July 1970. Both of these documents are the basis of the current Continuous Vocational Training in France that aims adults and the youth that is already active or is soon going to be. CVT is no longer just seen as an employees’ adaptation tool but also as a mean of individual development and social advancement.

Between the 80s and 2000s, CVT policy is transferred to decentralized administrations and becomes a mean to fight against youth unemployment. Through law no. 83-8 of January 7th, 1983 regarding the distribution of competences between municipalities, the State transfers to Régions its authority to set up CVT. Moreover, Missions Locales (Local missions) are created in 1982 (by ordnance no. 82-273) and are tasked with receiving, informing, directing and supporting youngsters between 16 and 25, in order to help them socially and professionally integrate.

Many laws will be created in order to develop CVT offer and to ensure its quality starting 1985: rapprochement between public service of employment and training institutions, development of diplomas that are acquired through credits and a simplification of the training access procedure, issuance of a certificate of skills acquisition to every trainee. The law no. 90-579 of July 4th, 1990 creates an Evaluation National Council to assess relevance of the training offer as well as the action plans towards CVT. A habilitation procedure of the training programs and a development of the national and local programing of the State intervention are also set in motion in order to insure a better control on public contracts as well as generally uplift training programs’ quality. Administrative and financial control of the State is extended to every CVT activities.

Early 2000s see an emergence of a « professionalization entitlement » along with a right to “return to training”. In 2002 is theValidation des Acquis de l’Expérience (VAE - Validation of professional experience) created (law no. 02-73 of January 17th, 2002 relative to social modernization). The law no. 2004-391 of May 4th, 2004 regarding lifelong vocational training and social dialogue, based on the agreement of September 20th, 2003, strictly states the lifelong training principle and creates a “Individual Training Right” (allowance of a training timeframe of 20 hours per year, cumulative over 6 years and partly transferable). The vocational contract is created to help employees that have an insufficient qualification.

Finally, through the law no. 2004-809 of August 13th, 2004 regarding local administrations’ liberties and responsibilities, the principle that states that Régions have entire responsibility over apprenticeship and youth and unemployed adults’ vocational training is set. Regional Councils now define and organize apprenticeship and vocational training policies. This law also anticipates a progressive transfer of funds towards Agence nationale pour la Formation Professionnelle des Adultes (AFPA - national Agency for Adults Vocational Training) internships from the State to the Régions, making Régions the only partner in charge of AFPA public contracts.

Current public policies priorities

Among recent reforms, the following are the most important ones:

The Compte Personnel de Formation (CPF - Personal Training Account), created by the National Inter-professional Agreement of December 2013 and introduced in January 2015, is an “account” on which employees accumulate training time. It allows the employees to access training in order to acquire a qualification and/or a certification. It differs from the Droit Individuel à la Formation (DIF - Individual Training Account), which the CPF replaced, because the DIF was linked to the existence of an employment contract, whatever its duration (which meant that in order to have a DIF, an individual had to be an employee). The CPF allows any individual to use the cumulated amount of training time whatever his (her) situation, even if (s)he is a job seeker. This cumulated amount is never “lost”, even if the professional situation of the individual changes.

These reforms seek, on the one hand, to develop the CVT system by setting up new schemes and, on the other, to encourage access to existing schemes. It is worth noting that the “Great National Cause 2013” was illiteracy, and this allowed developing awareness among population to this issue. Through the accreditation of the Great National Cause Label, numerous associations, federated by the Agence Nationale pour la Lutte Contre l’Illetrisme (ANCLI - National Agency to fight Illiteracy), have seen their actions against illiteracy recognized. Furthermore, a new nationwide illiteracy fighting plan was announced in November 2013 and launched for the 2014-2015 academic year.

References: Vie-publique : chronologie des politiques publiques de la formation professionnelle continue ;  circular letter no. 2013-179 of November 12th, 2013 ; Moncompteformation.gouv.fr : questions fréquentes