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Estonia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

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Overview Estonia

Contents

Estonia:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Estonia:Historical Development

Estonia:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Estonia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Estonia:Political and Economic Situation

Estonia:Organisation and Governance

Estonia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Estonia:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Estonia:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Estonia:Organisation of Private Education

Estonia:National Qualifications Framework

Estonia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Estonia:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Estonia:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Estonia:Funding in Education

Estonia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Estonia:Higher Education Funding

Estonia:Adult Education and Training Funding

Estonia:Early Childhood Education and Care

Estonia:Organisation

Estonia:Teaching and Learning

Estonia:Assessment

Estonia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Estonia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Estonia:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Estonia:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Estonia:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Estonia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Estonia:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Estonia:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Estonia:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Estonia:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Estonia:Higher Education

Estonia:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Estonia:First Cycle Programmes

Estonia:Bachelor

Estonia:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Estonia:Second Cycle Programmes

Estonia:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Estonia:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Estonia:Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Distribution of Responsibilities

Estonia:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Estonia:Main Providers

Estonia:Main Types of Provision

Estonia:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Estonia:Teachers and Education Staff

Estonia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Estonia:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Estonia:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Estonia:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Management and Other Education Staff

Estonia:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Estonia:Management Staff for Higher Education

Estonia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Estonia:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Quality Assurance

Estonia:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Estonia:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Educational Support and Guidance

Estonia:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Estonia:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Estonia:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Estonia:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Estonia:Mobility and Internationalisation

Estonia:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Mobility in Higher Education

Estonia:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Estonia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Estonia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Estonia:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Estonia:National Reforms in School Education

Estonia:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Estonia:National Reforms in Higher Education

Estonia:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Estonia:European Perspective

Estonia:Legislation

Estonia:Glossary

 

For an early implementation of the amendments to the Vocational Educational Institutions Act that entered into force 1 September 2013, in 2013-2015, reform of the organisation of vocational education and curricula was introduced.

The reform has the following main objectives:

  • to ensure the preparedness of vocational educational institutions for implementing the new curriculum system;
  • to launch a large-scale updating of curricula, teaching and education and organisation of study in vocational educational institutions;
  • to improve the quality of practical work and work practice.

The reform was promoted by the Foundation Innove in cooperation with the Department of Vocational Education of the Ministry of Education and Research and vocational educational institutions. The first curricula updated under the reform were launched in schools in September 2014.

Full transfer to the new curricular will be completed by 31 August 2018. 

Curriculum, Subjects, Number of Hours

Vocational training is acquired on the basis of school curricula.  Formal education curricula of a school, except for curricula of vocational secondary education, are prepared on the basis of the Vocational Education Standard and the relevant professional standard. In case of lack of a relevant professional standard, the school shall apply for approval to the curriculum from social partners, for example, from the potential main employers.

A curriculum of vocational secondary education school shall be prepared on the basis of the corresponding national curriculum. It shall be prepared in cooperation with social partners and on the basis of the relevant professional standards, the Vocational Education Standard and the national curriculum for upper secondary schools. National curricula are approved by a regulation of the Minister of Education and Research. 

A school curriculum shall set out the objectives, volume and learning outcomes of modules, the links thereof with the qualification framework established by the Professions Act, the assessment criteria as well as the opportunities of and conditions for choosing modules and the requirements for the commencement and completion of studies.    

The vocational education standard also establishes other requirements for compilation of curricula. The content of vocational training established by the curriculum is presented in modules. A module is a consistent content unit of a curriculum targeted at learning outcomes and it determines the knowledge, skills and values corresponding to the vocational skill requirements and comprises one or many subjects or themes. Module represents integrated content unit, which describes the academic results corresponding to the competence requirements. The volume of a module depends on its objective and contents. As of 1 September 2013, the volume of study determined by the module is calculated in vocational education credits, whereas one credit corresponds to 26 hours of student’s work on studying. 

Practical training in an enterprise or institution is an integral part of a curriculum. Upon organisation of practical training of students, the relations between a vocational school, student and the enterprise or institution of the practical training shall be regulated by a trilateral contract to be signed at least ten days before the commencement of practical training. The school must guarantee a student with a place of practical training as well as the preparation, guidance and evaluation of the practical training. Students are covered by the occupational health and safety legislation during the period of practical training. The volume of work practice (at school) and practical work (in a company) together shall form at least 50% of the total volume of the curriculum, and is generally divided equally.  Exceptionally, the volume of work practice and practical work together shall be at least 70% of the volume of the curriculum with level 2 vocational training curricula and at least 35% with vocational secondary education curricula.

The standard period of acquiring vocational secondary education is at least 3 years (180 credits). The volume of practical study (at a school) and practical training (in an enterprise) combined must make up at least 50% of the volume of studies, or 35% in case of vocational secondary education, and is generally divided equally. The curriculum must contain at least 60 credits of general education subjects, whereas 30 credits of the required general studies are integrated in the module of basic studies of the specialty (specialty studies). 

A list and volumes of the modules of general studies (curricula of vocational secondary education as of 1 September 2013).   

Name and number of the module

Modul

volume

Language and literature
6 EKAP
Estonian as a second language (groups with Russian as a language of instruction)
5 EKAP
Foreign language
4.5 EKAP
Mathematics
5 EKAP
Natural science
6 EKAP
Social studies
7 EKAP
Art
1.5 EKAP

The EQF level 5 vocational training, provided since 1 September 2013, can be pursued only on the basis of secondary education; the admitted students are required to have completed secondary education and demonstrate age-related maturity. Since 2013, the number of students enrolled in the EQF level 5 vocational training has increased rapidly. In the academic year 2015/2016, there were 2,749 students enrolled in the EQF level 5 vocational training, mostly in the business services curriculum group. The number of students in legal services, trade, tourism, catering and accommodation services, etc. was lower.  

Study Methods and Materials

Teachers may choose the teaching methods they use. Methods to stimulate student participation are recommended. Teachers can also choose the study aids used. The usage of technological appliances and materials is not regulated but a broader deployment thereof has been supported by various initiatives.