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Estonia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

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Overview Estonia

Contents

Estonia:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Estonia:Historical Development

Estonia:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Estonia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Estonia:Political and Economic Situation

Estonia:Organisation and Governance

Estonia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Estonia:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Estonia:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Estonia:Organisation of Private Education

Estonia:National Qualifications Framework

Estonia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Estonia:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Estonia:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Estonia:Funding in Education

Estonia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Estonia:Higher Education Funding

Estonia:Adult Education and Training Funding

Estonia:Early Childhood Education and Care

Estonia:Organisation

Estonia:Teaching and Learning

Estonia:Assessment

Estonia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Estonia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Estonia:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Estonia:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Estonia:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Estonia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Estonia:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Estonia:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Estonia:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Estonia:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Estonia:Higher Education

Estonia:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Estonia:First Cycle Programmes

Estonia:Bachelor

Estonia:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Estonia:Second Cycle Programmes

Estonia:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Estonia:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Estonia:Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Distribution of Responsibilities

Estonia:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Estonia:Main Providers

Estonia:Main Types of Provision

Estonia:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Estonia:Teachers and Education Staff

Estonia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Estonia:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Estonia:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Estonia:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Management and Other Education Staff

Estonia:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Estonia:Management Staff for Higher Education

Estonia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Estonia:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Quality Assurance

Estonia:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Estonia:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Educational Support and Guidance

Estonia:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Estonia:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Estonia:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Estonia:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Estonia:Mobility and Internationalisation

Estonia:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Mobility in Higher Education

Estonia:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Estonia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Estonia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Estonia:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Estonia:National Reforms in School Education

Estonia:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Estonia:National Reforms in Higher Education

Estonia:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Estonia:European Perspective

Estonia:Legislation

Estonia:Glossary

 

Basic education is the minimum compulsory general education, which is acquired in the basic school and which gives the right to continue studies at upper secondary education level. With a view to supporting the development of a student and assessing the acquired general competence and skills, and development, the national curriculum specifies the outcomes of basic education acquisition by stage of study:  stage I – grades 1–3; stage II – grades 4–6; stage III –  grades 7–9.

Basic education can be acquired in a basic school or an upper secondary school with basic school grades operating as a single institution. In a basic school studies are pursued either in all basic school grades or only in some consecutive grades preceding the upper secondary school. With a view to improving the availability of education, basic schools can be formed (including general education school and child care institution operating as a single institution) which may have grades 1 to 6, depending on the needs and possibilities.

A basic school is a comprehensive school in which each subsequent year (grade) is based directly on the previous one and allows for a smooth transfer from one school to another.

The rights and duties related to acquiring basic education are regulated by several legal acts. The Constitution determines the right to education. The Child Protection Act provides for the obligations and duties of the state and local governments in guaranteeing the rights and welfare of children.  The Education Act defines the different levels of education, including basic education, the principles of management and organisation of the education system, compulsory school attendance, and also determines the types of educational institutions. The Basic Schools and Upper Secondary Schools Act establishes the basis of organisation of study, the rights and responsibilities of students, parents and school staff as well as the basis of operating and financing a school and of state supervision. The Private Schools Act regulates the same issues in private schools.

The standard of basic education is determined by the national curriculum for basic schools (2011).

National curriculum establishes:

  • fundamental values of education;
  •  teaching and learning objectives;
  • approaches to learning;
  • requirements for learning environment;
  • bases for organisation of teaching and learning;
  • assessment principles and requirements for finishing a year and graduating from a school;
  • fundamentals of preparation of school curriculum;
  • syllabi of subject areas, incl. subject syllabi of compulsory subjects.


According to the national curriculum, the school must assist in raising young people to be creative, versatile individuals, who can operate well in different areas of life such as family, work or public appearance.

The purpose of a basic school is to create an age-appropriate, secure learning environment for students which acts in a positive way and helps their development, and supports the development of intellectual curiosity and learning skills, self-reflection and critical thinking ability, development of their knowledge and qualities related to their will, creative self-expression and social and cultural identity. Basic schools support the development of basic values; students understand the values underlying their actions and feel responsibility for the consequences of their actions.

A basic school helps a student find out about his or her interests, talents and abilities and ensures the readiness for continuing studies at the next stage of study and for lifelong learning. In addition, the curriculum supports a socialisation process of the new generation based on Estonian cultural traditions, European common values and adoption of the achievements of the world culture and science.

The simplified national curriculum for basic schools establishes the standard of basic education for the students with mild learning difficulties, students with moderate learning difficulties, and students with severe and profound learning difficulties.

The school as an employer (employment contracts, work time, salary, etc.) is regulated by regulations issued by the Government of the Republic.

Regulations issued by the Minister of Social Affairs regulate the questions concerning the health of students.

Legislative References

Constitution

Child Protection Act

Education Act

Basic Schools and Upper Secondary Schools Act

Private Schools Act

National curriculum for basic schools

Simplified national curriculum for basic schools

Conditions and procedure for language and culture teaching

Health protection requirements for schools

Health protection requirements for school timetables and organization of study

Activities to be carried out by nurses providing health services at school and the requirements for the time, scope, availability and location of the activities of the nurses

Setting the minimum rates for the basic school and upper secondary school teachers’ salaries

List of positions of educationalists and scientific workers/scientific staff that are entitled to 56 calendar days of annual leave, and the duration of leave according to positions

Working time of educators