This page was last modified on 6 December 2016, at 12:31.

Estonia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

From Eurydice

Jump to: navigation, search

Overview Estonia

Contents

Estonia:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Estonia:Historical Development

Estonia:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Estonia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Estonia:Political and Economic Situation

Estonia:Organisation and Governance

Estonia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Estonia:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Estonia:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Estonia:Organisation of Private Education

Estonia:National Qualifications Framework

Estonia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Estonia:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Estonia:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Estonia:Funding in Education

Estonia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Estonia:Higher Education Funding

Estonia:Adult Education and Training Funding

Estonia:Early Childhood Education and Care

Estonia:Organisation

Estonia:Teaching and Learning

Estonia:Assessment

Estonia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Estonia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Estonia:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Estonia:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Estonia:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Estonia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Estonia:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Estonia:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Estonia:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Estonia:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Estonia:Higher Education

Estonia:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Estonia:First Cycle Programmes

Estonia:Bachelor

Estonia:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Estonia:Second Cycle Programmes

Estonia:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Estonia:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Estonia:Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Distribution of Responsibilities

Estonia:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Estonia:Main Providers

Estonia:Main Types of Provision

Estonia:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Estonia:Teachers and Education Staff

Estonia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Estonia:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Estonia:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Estonia:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Management and Other Education Staff

Estonia:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Estonia:Management Staff for Higher Education

Estonia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Estonia:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Quality Assurance

Estonia:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Estonia:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Educational Support and Guidance

Estonia:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Estonia:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Estonia:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Estonia:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Estonia:Mobility and Internationalisation

Estonia:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Mobility in Higher Education

Estonia:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Estonia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Estonia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Estonia:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Estonia:National Reforms in School Education

Estonia:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Estonia:National Reforms in Higher Education

Estonia:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Estonia:European Perspective

Estonia:Legislation

Estonia:Glossary

The area of Estonia is 45,227 km². According to the data of the 2011 Population and Housing Census, there are 1,294, 455 permanent residents in Estonia. Compared to the previous 2000 census, the number of permanent residents in Estonia has decreased by 75,797 or 5.5%.

There were 693,929 women and 600,526 men. 68.7% defined themselves as Estonians and 24.8% as Russians. 4.9% of the enumerated permanent residents specified another ethnic nationality and 1.5% did not specify any ethnic nationality.

Accession to the European Union has caused outward migration for employment purposes. The number of Estonian inhabitants working abroad has become four-fold since Estonian accession to EU in 2004.

According to a survey by Statistics Estonia, 0.6% of the working-age population or 6,300 people worked abroad in 2004. This ratio has constantly increased. According to the data of the 2011 Census, 24,907 people, i.e. 4.4% of the employed, work abroad, 61% of them work in Finland.

According to a survey by Statistics Estonia, in 2015, 15.5% of the population aged between 15 and 74 years had acquired the first level of education or less. 51.1% had second level education, education beyond the second level or prior to the third level and 33,4% had acquired the third level of education. 

The official state language of Estonia is Estonian. Other main spoken languages are Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian and Finnish. According to the data of 2011 census, the major minority language is Russian with 372,480 speakers, i.e., 29.6% of the population. In 2011, the total number of people whose mother tongue is other than Estonian was 22,103 people or 1.3% of the population. Estonian and Russian are used as languages of instruction in general education schools; also English, French, German, Finnish and Swedish in schools with profound language studies. Representatives of the German, Russian, Swedish and Jewish national minorities as well as representatives of other national minorities in Estonia, of which there are more than 3,000, may establish their minority cultural autonomies.

Freedoms of conscience, religion and thought are valid in Estonia. Belonging to churches and religious unions is free, no state church exists. Most of the population are Lutheran; the number of Orthodox, Evangelical Christians and Baptists is almost equal. Smaller religious groups are Methodists, Adventists, Raskolniki, Jehova's Witnesses, Roman Catholics, Jews and others. Religious studies at school are voluntary but a school has to guarantee the opportunity for religious study provided the number of applicants at the same stage of study is at least 15.