Estonia:Mobility and Internationalisation

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Overview Estonia

Contents

Estonia:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Estonia:Historical Development

Estonia:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Estonia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Estonia:Political and Economic Situation

Estonia:Organisation and Governance

Estonia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Estonia:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Estonia:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Estonia:Organisation of Private Education

Estonia:National Qualifications Framework

Estonia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Estonia:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Estonia:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Estonia:Funding in Education

Estonia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Estonia:Higher Education Funding

Estonia:Adult Education and Training Funding

Estonia:Early Childhood Education and Care

Estonia:Organisation

Estonia:Teaching and Learning

Estonia:Assessment

Estonia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Estonia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Estonia:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Estonia:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Estonia:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Estonia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Estonia:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Estonia:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Estonia:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Estonia:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Estonia:Higher Education

Estonia:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Estonia:First Cycle Programmes

Estonia:Bachelor

Estonia:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Estonia:Second Cycle Programmes

Estonia:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Estonia:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Estonia:Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Distribution of Responsibilities

Estonia:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Estonia:Main Providers

Estonia:Main Types of Provision

Estonia:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Estonia:Teachers and Education Staff

Estonia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Estonia:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Estonia:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Estonia:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Management and Other Education Staff

Estonia:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Estonia:Management Staff for Higher Education

Estonia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Estonia:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Quality Assurance

Estonia:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Estonia:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Educational Support and Guidance

Estonia:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Estonia:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Estonia:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Estonia:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Estonia:Mobility and Internationalisation

Estonia:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Mobility in Higher Education

Estonia:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Estonia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Estonia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Estonia:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Estonia:National Reforms in School Education

Estonia:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Estonia:National Reforms in Higher Education

Estonia:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Estonia:European Perspective

Estonia:Legislation

Estonia:Glossary

 

The more important directions and choices in Estonian education have been set out in the Estonian Lifelong Learning Strategy 2020, which emphasises, inter alia, the importance of openness, tolerance and international cooperation in the development of the lifelong learning system. Additionally, the strategy highlights the relevance of internationalisation in the preparation of employees in the areas of economic growth.  It is also necessary to support the introduction of international experience and competence in the institutions of higher education with a view to improving the quality and attractiveness of education. It is of importance to make an effort to participate in the global labour market, which requires an increasingly stronger focus on professional knowledge and skills, foreign language skills, cultural awareness and tolerance. Similarly, the benefits to the society from the internationalisation of education need to be explained. Higher education programme 2016-2019 highlights the role of the internationalisation of education in supporting the development of Estonian areas of economic growth and the quality of higher education. Providing academic and professional foreign language training in Estonia, paying attention to work practice opportunities and creating employment opportunities for graduates in the Estonian labour market are also integral to the internationalisation. The same principles are supported by the Estonia’s competitiveness strategy ‘Estonia 2020’, which also recognises the relevance of internationalising at home – attracting talents to the areas important for Estonia and becoming more active in hiring foreign teaching staff in Estonian institutions of higher education to give the local students unable to study in a foreign institution of higher education an opportunity to have a contact with an international environment.   

Estonia has most opportunities for international mobility at higher education level with respect to both incoming and outgoing students. While in the European higher education the target for those with mobility experience among graduates is 20% in 2020, the objective of the Estonian higher education policy is not only enabling an experience of mobility to Estonian students but also increasing considerably the share of foreign students in Estonia.  

In 2015, the managing committee for the internationalisation of Estonian higher education and research approved the Strategy for the Internationalisation of Estonian Higher Education 2015-2020. According to the strategy, the target percentage of foreign nationals among the students in higher education in Estonia is 10% and that of the Master’s and Doctoral graduates working in Estonia after the completion of their studies is 30%. Since a lot of resources have been channelled into the internationalisation of higher education, by supporting mobility, international cooperation and marketing of Estonian higher education abroad, the number of foreign students in formal education has more than doubled over the last six years. While in the academic year 2011/12, the number of foreign students in formal education was 1,573, in 2016/17, the according number was 3,917, i.e., 8.2% of the total number of students.   

Archimedes Foundation under the Ministry of Education and Research implements national, international and European Union education programmes, coordinates the award of different grants and scholarships, and engages in marketing of higher education abroad. The activities relating to marketing of higher education abroad are carried out under the brand name of Study in Estonia. In 2015, Study in Estonia organised, in addition to marketing activities, also the fair Work in Estonia, bringing together foreign students and employers. 

With a view to increasing mobility, several scholarship programmes have been developed. The greatest of the scholarship programmes promoting the internationalisation of higher education is Dora Plus 2015-2023 funded from the European Regional Development Fund. The programme aims at increasing the popularity and attractiveness of Estonia as a place for study and research, and the international competitiveness of the education provided by the institutions of higher education. The sub-objectives of the programme include the improvement of awareness of young researchers and Master’s students of different study and research work practices as well as an increase in their participation in international cooperation projects, an increase in the share of international Master’s and Doctoral students in Estonian institutions of higher education, improve the efficiency of Doctoral studies, improve the demand for international students in the Estonian labour market and thereby support the development of higher education and economy and bring the Doctoral studies provided in Estonian universities more in line with the principles of innovative Doctoral studies. 

Legislative References

Estonian higher education strategy 2006-2015

Estonian higher education international promotion strategy 2015-2020

National reform programme "Estonia 2020"