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Estonia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

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Overview Estonia

Contents

Estonia:Political, Social and Economic Background and Trends

Estonia:Historical Development

Estonia:Main Executive and Legislative Bodies

Estonia:Population: Demographic Situation, Languages and Religions

Estonia:Political and Economic Situation

Estonia:Organisation and Governance

Estonia:Fundamental Principles and National Policies

Estonia:Lifelong Learning Strategy

Estonia:Organisation of the Education System and of its Structure

Estonia:Organisation of Private Education

Estonia:National Qualifications Framework

Estonia:Administration and Governance at Central and/or Regional Level

Estonia:Administration and Governance at Local and/or Institutional Level

Estonia:Statistics on Organisation and Governance

Estonia:Funding in Education

Estonia:Early Childhood and School Education Funding

Estonia:Higher Education Funding

Estonia:Adult Education and Training Funding

Estonia:Early Childhood Education and Care

Estonia:Organisation

Estonia:Teaching and Learning

Estonia:Assessment

Estonia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Early Childhood Education and Care

Estonia:Single Structure Education (Integrated Primary and Lower Secondary Education)

Estonia:Organisation of Single Structure Education

Estonia:Teaching and Learning in Single Structure Education

Estonia:Assessment in Single Structure Education

Estonia:Organisational Variations and Alternative Structures in Single Structure Education

Estonia:Upper Secondary and Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Estonia:Organisation of General Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Teaching and Learning in General Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Assessment in General Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Organisation of Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Teaching and Learning in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Assessment in Vocational Upper Secondary Education

Estonia:Organisation of Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Estonia:Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Estonia:Assessment in Post-Secondary Non-Tertiary Education

Estonia:Higher Education

Estonia:Types of Higher Education Institutions

Estonia:First Cycle Programmes

Estonia:Bachelor

Estonia:Short-Cycle Higher Education

Estonia:Second Cycle Programmes

Estonia:Programmes outside the Bachelor and Master Structure

Estonia:Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Estonia:Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Distribution of Responsibilities

Estonia:Developments and Current Policy Priorities

Estonia:Main Providers

Estonia:Main Types of Provision

Estonia:Validation of Non-formal and Informal Learning

Estonia:Teachers and Education Staff

Estonia:Initial Education for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Conditions of Service for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers Working in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Initial Education for Academic Staff in Higher Education

Estonia:Conditions of Service for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Estonia:Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff Working in Higher Education

Estonia:Initial Education for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Conditions of Service for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Continuing Professional Development for Teachers and Trainers Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Management and Other Education Staff

Estonia:Management Staff for Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Staff Involved in Monitoring Educational Quality for Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Education Staff Responsible for Guidance in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working with Schools

Estonia:Management Staff for Higher Education

Estonia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Higher Education

Estonia:Management Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Other Education Staff or Staff Working in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Quality Assurance

Estonia:Quality Assurance in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Quality Assurance in Higher Education

Estonia:Quality Assurance in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Educational Support and Guidance

Estonia:Special Education Needs Provision within Mainstream Education

Estonia:Separate Special Education Needs Provision in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Support Measures for Learners in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Guidance and Counselling in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Support Measures for Learners in Higher Education

Estonia:Guidance and Counselling in Higher Education

Estonia:Support Measures for Learners in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Guidance and Counselling in a Lifelong Learning Approach

Estonia:Mobility and Internationalisation

Estonia:Mobility in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Mobility in Higher Education

Estonia:Mobility in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Early Childhood and School Education

Estonia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Higher Education

Estonia:Other Dimensions of Internationalisation in Adult Education and Training

Estonia:Bilateral Agreements and Worldwide Cooperation

Estonia:Ongoing Reforms and Policy Developments

Estonia:National Reforms in Early Childhood Education and Care

Estonia:National Reforms in School Education

Estonia:National Reforms in Vocational Education and Training and Adult Learning

Estonia:National Reforms in Higher Education

Estonia:National Reforms related to Transversal Skills and Employability

Estonia:European Perspective

Estonia:Legislation

Estonia:Glossary

 

Academic Guidance

In preschool child care institutions, children have the right to get help from teachers for acquisition of material foreseen in curricula. The preschool child care institution’s curriculum establishes the principles and organisation of support for the development of a child with special needs. The director of the institution is accountable for the teamwork that is required for supporting the development of children with special educational needs, including of talented children.  At the beginning of a school year, teachers working with the group shall draw up an individual curriculum for the child, in cooperation with a speech therapist/a special education teacher and other specialists and parents, if necessary.  The preschool child care institution supports families with a different language and cultural background in familiarizing the child with their own language and culture and in valuing Estonian language and culture.

According to the Basic Schools and Upper Secondary Schools Act, teachers must monitor a student’s development and coping at school and if necessary, adjust study to meet the needs of the student. In order to develop a student’s abilities and talents, schools must find out the student’s individual learning needs, choose appropriate study methods and organise differentiated study if necessary. The school guarantees that a student who is temporarily lagging behind in achievement of presumed learning outcomes receives additional pedagogical guidance outside lessons.

In schools study counselling is conducted at two levels:

  • Internal counselling. In a school counselling is generally conducted by a special education teacher whose task is to:

-  identifying the problems of a student with learning difficulties;
-  preparing and conducting the lessons of remedial instruction groups and individual lessons together with students;
- providing instruction and counselling to teachers for planning and conducting study for students with special educational needs;
- organising activities and cooperation aimed at supporting a student in school and analysing the results thereof;
- advising a parent in questions related to the provision of support to a child and developmental special needs.

  •   Out-of-school counselling. Counselling is carried out by a specialist in a county educational support services centre in case the measures taken in school have not given the expected results or in case the student has a very specific special educational need.

Psychological Counselling

If required, students must have access to the counselling and guidance services of a special education teacher, a social educator and a psychologist. If a school has not employed the respective specialists, these services must be commissioned from county educational support services centres. All over Estonia there are 16 educational support services centres, the task of which is to counsel and support students, teachers and parents about the organisation of study for students with special educational needs.

The services of a psychologist include:

  • evaluation of the factors affecting the development of the child (testing, observing, interviewing, analysing evaluation results, etc.)
  • individual and group-based counselling and preparing thereof to help the student:

- making study and career choices and decisions;
- developing self-awareness;
- solving problems related to the personal life and studies;
- obtaining communication skills;
- improving self-esteem;
- coping with crisis (if the training is available);

  • providing counselling to parents and teachers for finding educational strategies and solutions in supporting the development of a child’s normal development;
  • participation in the activities of the network of cooperation around the child.

Career Guidance

Every general education school shall organise notification of their students of the possibilities for continuing studies and the general trends on the labour market and ensure the availability of career services (career studies, information or counselling).

Career counselling both in general education schools and vocational schools is conducted by career specialists who work in county educational support services centres:

  •  in schools career studies and the development thereof are organised by the person conducting career studies or a career co-ordinator;
  •  career information specialist creates, collects and intermediates information related to labour market and education;
  •  a career advisor supports people in career planning; he or she helps to increase self-awareness, awareness of the learning opportunities and the labour market, set up goals and plan activities to achieve these goals.   

Legislative References

Basic Schools and Upper Secondary Schools Act